Living in Truth:
Archaeology and the Patriarchs

Charts Part I   Book Navigator    Chapter 18

by Charles N. Pope
Copyright 1999-2004, 2016 by Charles Pope
United States Library of Congress
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Chapter 17
"Beast of Burden"
(The Role of the 22nd Dynasty in New Kingdom Egypt)


Name Associations

Torah Names Kings/Chronicles Names Greek Names Egyptian Names
Jacob-Israel Composite Solomon Dakos Amenhotep II
Sheshonq A
Leah
(wife of Jacob)
Ahijah, Ginath   Tia
Mehtenwesket
Rachel
(wife of Jacob)
Atarah   Merit-Amon
 
By Rachel, two sons
 
1) Joseph
(Amram)
Abishalom
("Father of Solomon")
Laius, Menoikeus Yuya, Imram
Asenath ("Egyptian" wife of Joseph)   Tuya
Manasseh
(Aaron)
Jeroboam (the Elder)
Amon, "Ruler of the City"
Amariah
(Kith-)Airon Aanen son of Yuya
Amon-appa/
Amarnappa
Ephraim
(Eleasar)
Asa/Shaul Asocheus, Creon Aye, Sheshonq I
  Jehoshaphat son of Asa   Iuput A
Jochebed
(Zipporah)
Naamah, Maacah, Abihail Joacaste, Merope
Eurydice
Tiye,
daughter of Yuya
  Composite Solomon Polybos/Polybus Amenhotep III
Moses Rehoboam
(son of Naamah & Abishalom)
Oedipus, Hermaeus
Phaethon
Amenhotep IV
Akhenaten
Eliezer Abijah, Abijam
(son of Rehoboam & Maacah)
Eteocles (A) Smenkhkare
Gershom/Joshua Attai
(son of Rehoboam & Maacah)
Eteocles (B) Tutankhamun
Tutu/ Dadua
 
2) Benjamin     Aakheprure
 
By Leah, six sons and one daughter (Dinah)
1) Reuben Uzziel, Mushi   Webensenu, Neby
2) Simeon     Siamun
3) Levi     Khaemwast
4) Judah Nemuel/Jemuel   Thutmose IV
Nimlot A/Nimrat
5) Issachar
(Hamor)
Izhar, Shilki/Shilhi
Amminadab II 
Osokhor Osorkon A
Shilkanni (Assyria)
Tola Baasha son of Issachar   Ba'sa, Milkilu
  Elah son of Baasha   Unattested
6) Zebulun Tibni   Nedjem

Lost Son of Israel

The seeds of discontent leading to the demise of Akhenaten and fall of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty were sown long before the death of Amenhotep III.  In fact, they had already germinated before the death of Amenhotep II.  Archaeology has uncovered as many as eleven princes belonging to the reign of Amenhotep II (Jacob).  They are Webensenu, Siamun, Khaemwaset, Menkheper/Thutmose,a Amenhotep, Nedjem, Yuya, Aakheprure, Amenemipet, and Princes "A" and "B" from inscriptions at Giza.b  In the Book of Genesis, eight sons of Jacob are born to him through his two wives Leah and Rachel.  Four additional sons of Jacob are born to him through the "concubines" Bilhah and Zilpah, bringing the total number of princes to twelve.

The Egyptian names of Judah, Joseph and Simeon have been identified as Thutmose, Yuya and Siamun, respectively.c  Additional confirmation of these and other associations is encoded in the "blessings of Jacob" found in Genesis 49.  Jacob describes Reuben as "my first born, my might, and the beginning of my strength."  This is a free translation of the Egyptian name Webensenu.d  As the eldest son of Amenhotep II, Webensenu (Reuben) was being patterned after the eldest son of the archetypal Jacob-Israel, Sargon the Great (Tudiya/Inyotef).  The eldest son of Sargon, namely Manishtushu, had been passed over for succession in favor of a younger son Rimush.e  Likewise, the New Kingdom Reuben, Webensenu, was rejected in the greater kingship by Amenhotep II (Jacob).

The blessing of Judah1 speaks of the "couching lion," "the lion's abode" and "the old lion."  These are allusions to the Sphinx, and serve to strengthen the identification of Judah with Thutmose, the fourth son of Leah.f  The blessings of Judah and Joseph are intertwined.  The Hebrew of Genesis 49:11 reveals that Joseph produced an son for Judah.  Even more surprising, the second but more favored son of Joseph was actually the natural son of Judah! (See Endnote 1.)  This explains Joseph's anger when Jacob blessed Ephraim (Aye) above his own natural son Manasseh (Aanen).  The Hebrew of Joseph's blessing (Gen 49:24) mirrors that of Judah's in explaining how Joseph abode (yashab, "married") in Judah, who was the eythan and abbiyr, literally, the "chieftain/co-regent" and "Father of the God/Potiphar." As a result, "the shepherd and stone (lit., "ruler and builder") of Israel" was born.  This son Solomon (Amenhotep III) called himself the "Shepherd King of Thebes," and he was of course the ancient world's greatest builder.

In the Middle Kingdom, archetypal Judah (Rimush) was murdered by Levi (Montuhotep II).  He probably did not act alone, but in collusion with Simeon (Naram-Sin).g  The New Kingdom Judah, that being Thutmose IV, also died young and as the result of an assassination attempt.  In Genesis 40, the cupbearer and baker of Pharaoh (Thutmose IV) were both imprisoned. The cupbearer was later exonerated. However, the baker was impaled, which suggests that he was found guilty of trying to kill the king.  Thutmose IV did not die immediately, however poisoning is the probable cause of his debilitating illness and premature death. The mummy of Thutmose IV is most notably characterized by its emaciation.

We do not know what role Simeon and Levi played in the assassination attempt of Judah. However, they were later disgraced by Jacob for the murder of another prince, Hamor, and for killing the nobility of Shechem.  A single blessing is given for both Simeon and Levi.  As in the Old Kingdom their fates were intermingled.  The Egyptian name of the New Kingdom Simeon ("son of hearing") was Si-amun, meaning "son of Amun," the god who not only hears but answers.  Because Siamun is such a direct adaptation of Simeon, the "blessing out" of Simeon and Levi by Jacob emphasizes the Egyptian name of Levi.  Almost every key word of the passage contains the phonic "kaw."2  In the reign of Amenhotep II, this most closely corresponds to the name of prince Kha-em-wast ("appearing/crowned in Thebes")

In the blessing of Zebulun, sixth son of Jacob and Leah, the word "haven" is deliberately repeated.  Zebulun's Egyptian name was Nedjem, which literally means "safety in." The Egyptian name of Benjamin is Aakheprure, meaning "Great is the manifestation (rising) of Re," the sun god.  The short blessing of Benjamin emphasizes the sun, both in its rising and setting, and the consuming power of its energy.  Key words of Benjamin's blessing were possibly also selected in order to emphasize the phonic "aw."  In the Book of Genesis, Benjamin is greatly loved by the Patriarch Jacob, and indicates that he was being groomed for kingship, probably in repetition of the Middle Kingdom Benjamin, Gudea son of Sargon.  However, it was not to be.  The New Kingdom Benjamin was very sickly and died in his youth.

Only one of the eight leading royal sons of Jacob is still unaccounted for, that being Issachar, the fifth son of Leah.  The name Sekhemkare, the Middle Kingdom Issachar, is not among the list of prince names currently known in the reign of Amenhotep II.3  By process of elimination (and due to his great importance), it is suspected that the Egyptian name of this prince was that of Amenhotep after his father Amenhotep II.  Despite this uncertainty, the New Kingdom Issachar is easily recognized by the name he held among the people of his mother's homeland.  As discussed in Chapter 15, the father of Leah (Tia/Mehtenweskhet) is called Laban (~Libna/Libya), and he was a chief among the "Libyans" of Mitanni in Aram Naharaim of NW Mesopotamia. 

The New Kingdom Issachar was better known by the Libyan name Osorkon.  This prince Osorkon is generally designated by Egyptologists as Osorkon "A" or as Osokhor, which is the Greek form of the name. The parents of Osorkon are known from archaeology to have been Sheshonq "A" and Mehtenweskhet.  By association, Sheshonq A and Mehtenweskhet must be the "Libyan" names of Amenhotep II (Jacob) and Queen Tia (Leah).  Their son Osokhor was the uncle and father-in-law of Sheshonq I, who is considered to be founder of the 22nd Dynasty.h  Consequently, our New Kingdom Issachar is not lost, but has simply been misplaced in time.  As shown in Chart 5, the beginning of the 22nd Dynasty was contemporary with the end of the 18th Dynasty (and not hundreds of years later as in the prevailing academic chronology). 

The brother of Osokhor and father of pharaoh Sheshonq I was another son of Sheshonq A and Queen Mehtenweskhet named Nimlot A.  Aidon Dodson writes: "While yet Chief of the Ma, possibly based at Bubastis in the south-eastern Delta, Shoshenq I had petitioned the god Amun for the establishment of an Abydene cenotaph for his father, Nimlot A, as recorded on a stele from that city [Abydos]."i  Egyptologists think that Nimlot and other 22nd Dynasty names belong to some long-lost Libyan tongue, and therefore do not speculate as to their meanings.  The name Nimlot may defy accepted linguistic norms, however it can be readily translated as "take by lot," i.e., "seize by oracle."4

The name Nimlot was also sometimes written as Nimrat, which literally means, "take boldly" or "strong seizer."  The variant Nimrat points to an earlier Biblical hero by the same name, i.e., Nimrod, the "mighty hunter."  Judah is the son who is copiously compared in the blessings of Jacob to the mightiest hunter of the animal kingdom, that of the lion.  At the Sphinx, Judah (crown prince Thutmose IV) was chosen by his father (in the guise of the god Re-Harakhty) to become the next pharaoh of Egypt.  This would have been a most remarkable and fortuitous "oracle" for any fourth son of a king.  Thutmose remembered the magic of that moment by placing his famous Dream Stele between the sand-cleared paws of the Sphinx itself.

You Say Shoshenk, I Say Sheshonq

The Assyrian form of the name Osokhor/Osorkon was Shilkanni or Shilheni.j  In the Biblical record the daughter of Shilki/Shilhi (Osokhor A) was married to King Asa and is named as the mother of the renowned Jehoshaphat.  The Bible calls the mother of Iuput by the pejorative (or affectionately teasing?) nickname of Azuba, meaning "traitor."  Asa was the perennial enemy of Azuba's brother Baasha son of Issachar.  Such were the contradictions of ancient court life.  Consistent with the archaeological record, Biblical Asa (Sheshonq I) can be identified as the natural son of Judah (Thutmose IV) and as the nephew and son-in-law of Shilki/Issachar (Shilkanni/Osokhor). Further confirmation of this association will be provided in the next chapter, in which it will be shown that Jehoshaphat son of Asa corresponds to the King of Upper Egypt and High Priest of Amun named Iuput son of Sheshonq.

The name Asa, like so many king names of Israel and Judah, is not found in any genealogy. This does not mean that these prominent kings are not included in one or more genealogy, only that they are not listed under the pseudonyms used in the Biblical narratives. The stele at Abydos is a strong indication that Asa claimed Judah as his father.  However, as is so often the case in the royal court, Asa was considered the legal heir of another son of Jacob.  Sheshonq fills the favored seventh position in the list of Simeon's sons.5  He appears there under the name Shaul (7586), "asked (for)."  The name Shaul/Saul complements the Hebrew word asah (6213), meaning "made, appointed."  According to Strong's Concordance, the etymology of the proper name Asa (609) is of uncertain derivation.  Also, the Hebrew spellings of Asa and asah are completely different.  However, they are homonyms pronounced as aw-saw'. 

In the Middle Kingdom, the crown prince under Naram-Sin (Simeon) was the highly vaunted Shar-kalli-shari, "king of kings."  The Hebrew nickname Saul/Shaul appears to have been originally adapted from "Shar."  In 1 Chron. 4:24-26 we find that Mishma was a prominent descendant of Simeon through Shaul/Asa.  The Meshwesh (or Ma for short) was the dominant Libyan tribe in the time of the second Simeon, Si-amun. In fulfillment (repetition) of the earlier family history, Si-amun coveted the rule of peoples descending from his Middle Kingdom namesake.  However, in order to gain this kingship Si-amun committed murder and was ultimately cast down even as his namesake had been.  The identification of Si-amun son of the New Kingdom Jacob (Amenhotep II) with Naram-Sin son of the 11th Dynasty Jacob (Sargon the Great) appears to have been so complete that the genealogy of Simeon provided in 1 Chronicles 4:24-43 is a composite of both.

In the genealogy of Simeon, the mother of Shaul (Asa) is said to have been a "Canaanite woman" or "Canaanitish woman."  That is, she was a princess born or residing in a royal harem in Canaan.  The Middle Kingdom Shaul (Shar-kalli-shari) may have been the "seventh" son of the Middle Kingdom Simeon (Naram-Sin) by a queen or concubine "of Canaan."  However, the New Kingdom Asa/Shaul (Sheshonq I) was the natural son of Judah sired by a one-time wife of Simeon.  After the early death of his father Judah (Thutmose IV), he was then adopted and raised by Joseph (Yuya).  As the biological son of Judah, Asa was not favored by Joseph, but only by his grandfather Jacob. The subtlety of the family relationship is brought out in the Torah where Asa is first called Ephraim and is somewhat resented by his adopted father Joseph.

In the Kitchen with Dinah

The controversy associated with the birth and appointment of Aye-Sheshonq as a king of Libya (Judah) is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the late Egyptian 18th Dynasty, and the Amarna Period in particular.  The story of Aye-Sheshonq (Ephraim-Asa), founder of the 22nd Dynasty, begins with the sordid affair of Simeon and the Shechemites found in Genesis 34.  At the time of the Shechemite massacre the aged Thutmose III (Isaac) had only recently decided to name Amenhotep II (Jacob) as his successor. While his father Isaac lived, Jacob could not yet officially crown one of his many sons as his own successor, yet there was already an heir apparent.  After the disgrace of Rueben, it might be expected that Simeon was next in line.  However, Jacob evidently intended to by-pass Simeon, as well as his third son Levi and fourth son Judah, in favor of his fifth son Issachar.

In the blessing of Issachar found in Genesis 49:14-15, Issachar is called a "garam chamar," that is, Strong Hamar, "Beast of Burden."  This and other word plays in the blessing6 positively identify him as "Hamor prince of Shechem" in Genesis 34.  Jacob bought land from the nobility of Shechem and installed his son Issachar as ruler of the region.  Shechem of the story would have been the highest-ranking nobleman from among the people of the region, and a political appointee during the reign of Thutmose III (Isaac).  Rather than deposing or killing this man of considerable privilege and influence, Jacob appears to have offered him a place in his own administration and subordinated him to his son Hamor/Issachar.  This was part of a "peaceful" transfer of power.  Jacob preferred mediation to war.  Together, Jacob (Amenhotep II) and his "grandson" (Amenhotep III) of the Genesis account represent the peace-loving Solomon in the Kings/Chronicles narrative.)  Jacob intended to pacify this royal enclave through diplomacy and intermarriage. 

In Upper Egypt during the early dynastic period the most important location was Nekhen (Greek Hierakonpolis).k  It was here that Hor-Aha/Scorpion (Cush) and Narmer (Nimrod) established their power base in Egypt. The "Main Deposit" of articles belonging to Scorpion (Cush) and Narmer (Nimrod), including the Narmer Palette, was found at Nekhen.  This site remained a traditional seat of pharaonic kingship and corresponds to the Biblical city of Shechem.  The nobles of Shechem financed the coup that made Thutmose (Abimelech/David) "King of Israel" and ruler in Thebes (Thebez/Jerusalem).  And it was in Shechem rather than Jerusalem that King David was first crowned.  Rehoboam, the successor of Solomon also went to Shechem in order to be declared king of Israel, however he was summarily rejected.  According to 1 Chron. 4:41, we are told that the descendants of Simeon (Naram-Sin) had displaced the original Hamites of Judah.  This further indicates that the Shechem being referred to here was not in Central Palestine but was at Nekhen in Upper Egypt.

The ruler of Shechem in the time of Jacob (Amenhotep II) was called Shechem, and the prince of the city was named Hamor.  The modern (Arabic) name of this city is Kom el-Ahmar, "Red Mound,"l which can now be properly restored as the ancient "City of Ham" and of the later Hamor/Issachar.  The name Shechem itself is a Hebraized form of Kha-Sekhem-wy and Hotep-Sekhem-wy, which were Egyptian names of Ham, father of Cush and grandfather of Nimrod, the founder and progenitor of the pharaonic line.  In the 17th Dynasty, Sekhem-re was once again the most popular throne name (p're-nomen, "the Re name") in Upper Egypt.  It was the throne name of Nahor (Obed/Ebed), the father of Terah, and possibly also the throne name assumed by Nahor (Judah) brother of Terah.  Although the line of the younger Nahor ultimately lost out, there may have been a surviving royal descendant of Nahor in the city of Shechem (Nekhen/Nachor) with whom Jacob negotiated more or less as an equal.

The election of Hamor/Issachar as prince of Shechem designates him as successor to the greater throne of Israel under his father Jacob-Israel (Amenhotep II).  There was nothing more for his elder brothers to do other than to play the spoiler. The premarital dalliance of Shechem with Dinah provided Simeon with an opportunity to salvage some pride if not his lost birthright.  The alleged rape of Dinah is suspicious in that Jacob decided to give her to Shechem in marriage anyway.  Likely, a daughter of Shechem had already been betrothed to Hamor/Issachar and a bride of equal rank, prospectively Dinah, had been offered to Shechem in exchange.  However, Simeon and his brother Levi "took each man his sword, and came upon the city boldly, and slew all the males . and spoiled the city, because they had defiled their sister."m   The "blessing" of Simeon and Levi confirms that Issachar (showr aqar, "the ox Eker") was the victim.  Although cursed by Jacob, the tone of the Biblical narrative actually indicates that many felt that Simeon's action was justified, and that he should not have been court-martialed on account of it.7  Nevertheless, his birthright, as well as that of the accomplice Levi, was permanently forfeited.

All the men of noble and royal birth, including both Shechem and Hamor/Issachar were killed. However, the women of Shechem were spared by Simeon and Levi.  The city of Shechem had a history of supplying queens.  Earlier in the 18th Dynasty Gideon/Mamre (Tao II) had been the son of a Shechemite princess.  At issue is whether a "Canaanitish woman," which may have initially have been betrothed to Hamor/Issachar, was taken into the harem of Simeon. Upon the disgrace and punishment of Simeon this bride would have then become the wife of another son of Jacob. The only winner in this sad episode was Judah.  The heir apparent Issachar was dead, his three elder brothers were disqualified, and one or more high-ranking princesses were unencumbered.

It can be deduced that the name of the Shechemite princess (the "Canaanite woman" and future mother of New Kingdom Asa/Shaul) was Tuya.  The mummy of Tuya reveals that this princess was markedly different in appearance than other 18th Dynasty royals.  She possessed more classical Egyptian traits and represents the uniting of a collateral branch of the royal family.   This is the princess who was later given to Yuya (Joseph) upon his appointment as Vizier, and is called Asenath daughter of Potiphera priest of On in Genesis 41:45.   The feminine ending of the name Potiphera relates this princess to Thutmose IV (Judah-Potiphar). In fact, Tuya became both the "daughter" and wife of Thutmose IV after the murder of her family at Shechem and being taken into the harem of Thutmose IV.   Moreover, in addition to being crown prince, Thutmose IV would have been considered a priest of Re at Heliopolis.  The Genesis author creatively morphed New Kingdom identities in order to typecast that history as a repetition of Middle Kingdom persons and events.

After the death of Issachar at the hands of Simeon and Levi, it was Judah who was named as crown prince.  This office included the traditional privilege of producing an heir of his own through his mother Leah. We do know that Queen Tia (Leah/Ahijah) became the Royal Wife of her son Thutmose IV (Judah), because the two are shown together as such on several monuments.  Judah may also have become the "covering" for his full-sister Dinah.  The story of Joseph and Potiphar's wife (Genesis 39) suggests that at least one prominent consort of Judah was not able to have a child by him and was actively pursuing another partner. When Judah was unable to father any further heirs due to sickness or infertility, Joseph sired another one for him.

What is not clear is whether Mutemwia mother of Amenhotep III corresponds to Dinah the half-sister of Yuya (Joseph) or to Queen Tia (Leah).  It is quite possible that Dinah ultimately became the mother of Amenhotep III, and this is why she is uncharacteristically identified by name in the story of Hamor and Shechem.  Linguistically, Dinah ("judgment") is related to Mutemwia, meaning, "the (goddess) Mut in Wia/Via."  (Wia/Via ~ "knowledge/judgment")  On the other hand, Mutemwia could be an Egyptian or short form of the Libyan queen name Mehtenwesket.

Two years after the poisoning of Thutmose IV, Yuya was released from prison and the Shechemite princess Tuya was given to him marriage.  Tuya and Yuya subsequently had a son Aanen and a daughter Tiye.  Aanen (Manasseh) held the highly influential posts of High Priest of On and Second Priest (Prophet) of the state god Amun at Karnak for at least part of the reign of Amenhotep III.  In the reign of Ahmose, this office (2nd Prophet) had been promised as a permanent inheritance to the descendants of Queen Ahmose-Nefertari. This suggests that Tuya may have descended from this collateral line, and was therefore entitled to appoint her son as 2nd Prophet of Amun. In Genesis 48, Joseph becomes angry when Ephraim is favored more highly by Jacob than Manasseh, a true son of Joseph.  The Biblical account suggests that Aanen was older, however he may been of lower rank. Regardless, Joseph probably felt that as the senior surviving prince, his son should have ruled first (irrespective of birth order).

After the nobles of Shechem were slaughtered by Siamun (Simeon) and Khaemwaset (Levi), the people of this region evidently "asked for" another king to protect them and look after their interests.  Aye-Sheshonq, the son of Thutmose IV-Nimlot A (Judah) by the "Shechemite princess" Tuya, made an ideal choice as ruler of Shechem and the Libyans of that region.  At the beginning of the 18th Dynasty, the people of Israel had asked for a king to protect them against their enemies.  "The Lord" of that day, i.e., Tao I (Terah), appointed his grandson Kamose (Iscah), the Biblical Saul.   Later in that same dynasty, "the Lord" Amenhotep II-Sheshonq A (Jacob) similarly appointed his own "grandson" Aye-Sheshonq I (Ephraim) by Thutmose IV (Judah) as king, and gave him the nickname of Asa/Shaul, "asked for."  As a further concession to the people of Upper Egypt, Asa was not merely made a king but a pharaoh.  This also served the purpose of perpetuating the line of Judah (Thutmose IV).  It was declared that a son (male descendant) of Judah would always sit upon this separate pharaonic throne. A Noah-Solomon figure was traditionally without heir. However, the creation of a second dynasty allowed Aye to establish a natural dynasty.

Despite authorizing Aye to become pharaoh of Libya (Judah), Amenhotep II (Jacob) excluded Yuya's son Aanen as successor to the greater throne. The pedigree of Mutemwia was apparently considered superior to that of Tuya. Amenhotep III was the same age as Aye (by definition), and slightly older than Aanen. This is a strong indication that Yuya (Joseph) did not "sin" with the wife of Thutmose IV (Judah-Potiphar).  However, he would be officially called upon to become "father to pharaoh" (honorary father of the successor Amenhotep III) after his two-year prison duty and marriage to Tuya..  Upon the premature death of Thutmose IV, Yuya was obliged to provide male leadership within the royal family (as the Middle Kingdom Joseph-figure had also done).o  As we have learned, royal princes routinely offered their designated wives to each other, or were commanded to do so.  Refusal to cooperate was a serious offence and punishable by death.  The official purpose was never pleasure, but always preservation of the royal line.  However it must be recognized that we are dealing with highly intelligent, unstable, and willful personalities, both male and female.  Royal women did have considerable (and sometimes complete) independence.  Dynastic liaisons must have been arranged as often by royal sisters and mothers as by their fathers and brothers.  Prerogative of superiors and defiance by subordinates were the true constants of royal courtship and succession.

At the time of his death, Issachar/Hamor could not have been more than 25 years of age.  He was survived by at least one royal son, who is named as Baasha.p   Baasha was at a very young age appointed as king of Israel.  This was probably not done out of sympathy for his murdered father, but due to the continued influence of his mother Leah (Queen Tia). Prior to his death, Issachar possessed all of the privileges of the heir, including the opportunity to sire an heir of his own through his mother Leah, who is named as Ahijah in the Kings/Chronicles narrative.  Baasha son of Issachar by Queen Ahijah became a great king and lifelong nemesis of Asa son of Judah.q  However, the thrones of both Asa and Baasha were subordinate to that of Solomon (Amenhotep III).


  1. The prenomen of Thutmose IV was Menkheperure.
  2. Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign, eds. O'Connor and Cline, p 39.
  3. See Chapters 15 & 16 of this book.
  4. The Egyptian name Weben-senu means "man/son of shining." Webenu connotes the "first light over the water." (Stephen Quirke, The Cult of Ra: Sun Worship in Ancient Egypt, p 29) However, the roots we/wei ("vital force/might"), ben ("son") and sen ("elder/first") connect to the Biblical blessing of Reuben.  A more complete word study of Reuben and his family will be provided in Chapter 28.
  5. See Chapters 7 & 8 for previous discussion on Sargon and his sons.
  6. See Chapter 15 for previous discussion of Thutmose IV and the Sphinx.
  7. See Chapter 5.
  8. Aidon Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, pp 159-161.
  9. Aidon Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, p 161.
  10. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ANET), J. Pritchard, ed., Vol II, p 285 (c); Peter James, Centuries of Darkness, pp 255, 304.
  11. www.hierakonpolis.org
  12. Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p 16.
  13. Gen. 34:25-27  (KJV)
  14. Genesis 48:5
  15. Genesis 45:8
  16. See Chapter 19, Note 1 for the genealogy of Issachar.
  17. The kingly line of Issachar in the New Kingdom is discussed more fully in the next chapter.

Note 1:

"Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise:  thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies: thy father's children shall bow down before thee.  Judah is a lion'swhelp:  from the prey, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, he crouched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up?  The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be."  - Genesis 49:8-10 (KJV)

praise (3034) yadah; lit. to use the hand [as in worship of God or king]
hand (3027) yad; a hand (the open one [indicating power, means, direction, etc.] in distinction from kaph, the closed one)
neck (6203) oreph; the nape or back of the neck (as declining)
enemies (341) oyeb or owyeb; hating; an adversary
bow (7812) shachah; to depress, i.e. prostrate (espec. reflex. in homage to royalty or God)
lion's (738) ariy or aryeh; a lion
           from (717) arah; to pluck:- gather, pluck
whelp (1482) guwr or gur; a cub (as still abiding in the lair), espec. of the lion.  The prince Thutmose IV lying next to the Sphinx and appearing small in relation to its size.
           perhaps from (1481) guwr, to turn aside from the road (for a lodging or any other purpose), i.e., sojourn (as a guest). Thutmose IV turned aside to rest beside the Sphinx.
prey (2964) tereph; something torn:- leaf, meat, prey, spoil
           from (2963) taraph; to pluck off or pull to pieces
old lion (3833) labiy or lebaowth; to roar; a lion:- (great, old, stout) lion.  Cf Labayu

"Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass'scolt unto the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine and his clothes in the blood of grapes: His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teethwhite with milk."  - Genesis 49:11-12 (KJV)

binding (631) acar, aw-sar'; to yoke or hitch; by anal. to fasten in any sense, to join battle:- bind, fast, gird, hold, keep, make ready, order, prepare, prison(er), put in bonds, set in array, tie
           {The natural son of Judah was "bound/attached" as the legal son of Joseph.}
foal (5895) ayir, ah'-yeer; prop. a young ass (as just broken to a load); hence an ass-colt
           {A play on words referring to Ay/Aye.  Ay is associated with the donkey, both in Scripture and in the Amarna Tablets.}
vine (1612) gephen, gheh'-fen; to bend; a vine (as twining), esp. the grape:-  vine, tree
           {A reference to Yuya, see the blessing of Joseph, the vine.}
ass's (860) athown aw-thone'; a female ass (from its docility)
           {Referring to Judah's legal wife.}

colt (1121) ben, bane; a son (as a builder of the family name), one born, bough, branch, child, kid, calf, colt, breed
            {Referring to the builder king Solomon, the son of Joseph through the wife of Judah.}
choice vine (8321) soreq, so-rake'or soreqah, so-ray-kaw'; redness; a vine stock (prop. one yielding purple grapes, the richest variety):- choice (st, noble) wine
           {Joseph was the vine, but Judah was the "choicest vine," i.e., the king.}
washed (3526) kabac, kaw-bas'; to trample; hence to wash (prop. by stamping with the feet)
           {Euphemistically referring to sexual intercourse.}
garments (3830) lebush, leb-oosh'; a garment (lit. or fig.); by impl. (euphemistically) a wife
           {Judah's legal wife slept with Joseph for the sake of producing an heir.}
wine (3196) yayin, yah'-yin; to effervesce; wine (as fermented); by impl. intoxication
           {Euphemistically referring to sexual pleasure.}
clothes (5497) cuwth, sooth; covering, veiling, i.e. clothing
           {Repetition for effect, again referring to Judah's wife, i.e., the "veiled."}
blood (1818) dam, dawm; blood of man or animal; by anal. the juice of the grape:-blood, + innocent
           {No guilt was associated with this act, the participants were "innocent."}
grapes (6025) enab, ay-nawb'; prob. meaning to bear fruit; a grape:- (ripe) grape, wine
           {Reference to having children/heirs.}
eyes (5869) ayin, ah'-yin; an eye (lit. or fig.); by anal. a fountain (as the eye of the landscape):- affliction, outward appearance, [many other connotations]
           {Play on words, again referring Ay/Aye}
red (2447) chakliyl; to be dark; darkly flashing (only of the eyes); in a good sense, brilliant (as stimulated by wine)
           {A physical characteristic of Thutmose IV and/or Aye?}
wine (3196) yayin, yah'-yin; to effervesce; wine (as fermented); by impl. intoxication
           {Play on words, further emphasizing Ay/Aye, and his many connubials.}
teeth (8127) shen; a tooth (as sharp); spec. (for shenhabbiym) ivory [tooth of elephant]
           {Alluding to the love of Aye (Ahab son of Omri) for ivory.}
white (3836) laban; white
milk (2461) chalab; milk
            {Aye (Ephraim) delighted in his many political marriages, and in ivory.}

Based on the above word study, it can be deduced that Judah sired a son, Aye/Amenhotep III (Ephraim/Solomon), on behalf of Joseph, and Joseph’s own son and heir Aanen (Manasseh) was produced as a spare son for Judah.  This commingling of wives was done in the guiltless pleasure of bearing royal children.

Note 2:

The "Blessing" of Simeon and Levi in Genesis 49:5-7 (KJV):

"Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of cruelty are in their habitations.  O my soul, come not thou into their secret; unto their assembly, mine honour, be not thou united: for in their anger they slew a man, and in their selfwill they digged down a wall.  Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel:  I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel."

instruments (3629) keliy (kel-ee')
            from (3615) kalah (kaw-law') to cease, be finished, destroy utterly
cruelty (2555) chamac (khaw-mawce') violence, wrong
habitations (4380) mekerah (mek-ay-raw') stabbing; a sword
           from (3564) kuwr, dig, excavate
secret/council (5475) cowd (sode) a session, i.e., company of persons (in close deliberation);
            by impl. intimacy
            from (3245) yacad (yaw-sad') to set (lit. or fig.); intens. to found; reflex. to sit down together, i.e., settle consult
assembly (6951) qahal (kaw-hawl') assembly, company, congregation, multitude
honor (3519) kabod (kaw-bode') weight, glory
united (3161) yachad (yaw-chad') to be (or become) one. Cf Levi, “united.”

digged down (6131) aqar (aw-kar') to pluck up (espec. by the roots); spec. to hamstring; fig. to exterminate:- dig down, hough, pluck up, root up.
wall (7794) showr (shore) a bullock (as a traveler): - bull(-ock), cow, ox, wall [by mistake for 7791, shuwr]

The wall uprooted (showr aqar) by Simeon and Levi was the "Beast of Burden" Aqar, i.e., Issachar!  !  (See also the Blessing of Issachar analyzed in Note 6.)

Kha-em-waset ("Crowned in Thebes"), Egyptian name of Levi
Si-amun ("son of Amun"), Egyptian name of Simeon

Note 3:

Sons of Issachar (1 Chronicles 7:1)
(1) Tola, (8439) "worm, maggot"
(2) Puah/Pua (6326) "brilliance, glittery", a.k.a. Phuvah (6312) "puff, blow, blast"
(3) Jashub (3437) "he shall return, retreat, withdraw," from (7725)
(4) Shimron (8110) "guardianship, preserving, protecting," from (8105/8104)

The sons of Tola: (1 Chron 7:2)
a) Uzzi ("strength")
b) Rephaiah
c) Jeriel
d) Jahmai
e) Ibsam
f) Shemuel.

In Judges 10:1-2, Tola is "a man of Issachar" and a "son of Dodo" (descendant of the "beloved," i.e., King David).  King David (composite of Thutmose I and his son III) was the New Kingdom repetition of Sargon and his son Gudea from the Middle Kingdom. Tola is not explicitly designated as a king in the book of Judges, however he is said to have "led" Israel "after the time of King Abimelech [Thutmose I]."  Following the death of Thutmose I, Israel was ruled by Thutmose III (Isaac) and Amenhotep II (Jacob).  So, there is a lapse of some sixty years in the Judges narrative between the death of Abimelech and the time that Tola (Baasha), son of Issachar and "grandson" of Amenhotep II (Jacob), "rose" to lead Israel.

The genealogy of Issachar in 1 Chron. 7 is a Middle Kingdom genealogy, which applied to Sekhemkare son of Senusret I (Ephraim).  In the genealogy of Ephraim, Sekhemkare is called by the variant of Zabad.  The New Kingdom Issachar (Osorkon A) son of Jacob (Amenhotep II) was seen as a repetition of the Middle Kingdom archetype.  A separate genealogy for the New Kingdom Issachar is not given in the Bible.  Osorkon A, the second Issachar, is also named in the New Kingdom genealogy of Levi (Thutmose III), where he is called Izhar son of Kohath (Jacob/Amenhotep II).  This second Issachar is also called Amminadab son of Kohath in the Book of Exodus.  The equivalence of Amminadab and Izhar is clear from 1 Chronicles 6:2,22 and Exodus 6:18,21.  (In the Song of Songs, a lover speaks of her heart being stirred as though she were amidst the chariots of Amminadab.)

Izhar, "anointing, as with oil," from tsahar (6671) tsaw-har', to gleam:- make oil
Cf tsahar and sakar (7939) saw-kawr', used to form the name Issachar

Sons of Izhar (alternate form of Issachar/Osokhor) (Exodus 6:21)
(1) Korah, "icy smooth," "bald"
(2) Nepheg, "to spring forth, sprout"
(3) Zicri/Zichri, "memorable"
Zichri features prominently in the Biblical narrative after the death of Elah.  The "son of Zuchru" is also a notable figure in the Amarna Tablets, as noted by Immanuel Velikovsky in Ages in Chaos.

Sons of Korah:  Ex 6:24
a) Assir, "prisoner;"
b) Elkanah, "God has obtained;"
c) Abiasaph/Ebiasaph, "father of gathering"

Son of Amminadab (alternate name of Issachar/Osokhor) Exodus 6:23

(1) Naashon/Nahshon

Naashon (5177) "enchanter",    from (5172) nachash, prognosticate, diligently observe

Naashon is also known as Baasha, Chidon and Nachon.

Baasha, "of the house of Issachar" (1 Kings 15:27)
The name Baasha, "to stink" is a pun on the given name Naashon son of Amminadab, and connects to the name Tola son of Issachar.  Tola, meaning "worm, maggot" is related to shaniy (8144), "a red worm or insect."  The "crimson grub" was a source of red dye.  Red was the color of royalty, therefore the nickname would not have been entirely negative.  Naashon had also been a name of the earlier Patriarch Peleg/Nun, father of Joshua.  This earlier Naashon was a political son of the earlier Amminadab (Moses/Hammurabi).

Chidon (3592) Kidon, "prop. something to strike with, i.e., a dart"
           from (3589) kiyd (keen), "strike; a crushing; fig. calamity"
Nachon (5225) "prepared"
           from (3559) kuhn (koon), "to be erect, set up, establish"
           cf (5221) nakah, "strike"
           Cf Jachin (3199) one of the pillars of Solomon, and a son of Simeon
                       from (3559) "to be erect, to set up, establish"

The son of Baasha (1 Kings 16:6,8): Elah, ("oak, chief, strength")

The son of Baasha, Elah has the same meaning as Uzzi the eldest son of Tola.

Baasha is called the "son of Ahijah (Leah/Tia) of the house of Issachar." More specifically, Baasha/Tola was the son of Issachar (Osokhor) and the son/grandson of Queen Ahijah (Tia).  See 1 Kings 15:27.  In this family, "all things are possible."  A short time later in this dynasty, Queen Tiye became both the mother and grandmother of Tutankhamun!  The dynastic marriage of Tiye and Akhenaten was by no means the first nor the last time a queen became the consort of her own son.

In Judges 10:1, Tola is called the "son of Puah," which indicates that he was the younger brother of Puah, and therefore subordinate to him, at least initially.  In this case, Izhar's eldest son Korah ("smooth," i.e., shiny) corresponds to Issachar's "second" son Puah ("brilliance, glittery").  Likewise, Tola/Baasha, the first son of Issachar, probably corresponds to Izhar's second son Nepheg ("to spring forth, sprout"), a typical epithet for a younger son who excelled or at least survived one or more elder brothers, or to his third son Zichri ("memorable").  The inclusion of Korah son of Izhar/Amminadab in the genealogy of Levi may indicate that Puah was the natural son of Levi, and only the legal son of Issachar.  The variant Phuvah, meaning to "puff, blow, blast," reflects his musical ability. Eleven of the Psalms have the dedication: "For the sons of Korah."  "Korah son of Izhar" is also the leading protagonist in the infamous "Korah's Rebellion," one of many discordant stanzas in the "Moses Aria" (Numbers 16).  The compositing of Middle and New Kingdom history (and genealogies) in the Torah makes it difficult to establish whether Korah's Rebellion applied to one or both of these time periods.  Baasha's brother Korah in the New Kingdom certainly would have been of very great age by the time of the Exodus of Akhenaten, and in no condition to be paraded about in the wilderness.  Korah's last song was a sad one.  

Judges 10 tells us that Tola a man of Issachar was buried in Shamir. This appears to be the same as the Shemer of the Kings narrative.  Shemer is said to have been the name of the man who owned the hill upon which Omri (Yuya/Joseph) built [up] the provincial capital city of Samaria.  The Judges 10:1-2 synchronism is another confirmation that the content of Judges is concurrent with the Torah and portions of the Samuel/Kings/ Chronicles narrative.  Various passages in Judges occur before, during and after the United Kingdom (and not entirely after the Exodus of Moses/Akhenaten).

Note 4:

Etymologies of Nimlot and Nimrat
(Indo-European roots from The American Heritage Dictionary)

lot (3875) a veil: - covering, from (3874) to wrap up: - cast, wrap
Lot (3876) nephew of Abraham

kleu-.  Old English hlot, lot; Frankish *lot, lot, portion; Latin claudere, to close; Greek kleiein, to close

nem-2. To assign, allot; also to take."
Greek nemein, to allot
Old English niman, to take, seize
Old English naemel, quick to seize, and numol, quick at learning, seizing: nimble, quick and clever in action or acumen"

Nimlot, "quick to take and act on a (favorable) oracle,"
"take a (favorable) oracle" (from the hidden one Amun)
Thutmose IV (Judah) received a favorable oracle from Amenhotep II (Jacob) at the Sphinx, and took the birthright from his elder brothers.  Reuben was a "son of seeing," Simeon was a "son of hearing," but Judah was the praised "son of taking."

Nimrat, "strong seizer"
Same name as Nimrod, the "Mighty Hunter before the Lord"

reudh- red, ruddy, hard, strong, robust,
ret- rod-cross, rude
reu- reud/raud-bellow, roar
reug- roar, rut, riot

Cf Latin ratus, fixed: rate, ratify

Cf nem - sacred grove
Cf nome - pasture, spread, law, custom, number

See discussion of the Biblical name Nemuel in Note 4.

Note 5:

Sons of Simeon
(1) Nemuel/Jemuel (Nemuel/Jemuel  [The "sons" of New Kingdom Simeon may have been sons only in a political sense, i.e., junior brothers, etc.  In the New Kingdom, Nemuel/Jemuel represents Judah/Thutmose IV.]
(2) Jamin, "stronger side (left or right), the south."  [Possibly represents Reuben/Uzziel or Ben-jamin.]
(3) Jarib, "contends" [Note: Jarib is listed only in 1 Chronicles 4:24.  Cf Jerub-baal (Gideon) and Jeroboam rival of Rehoboam.]
(4) Ohad/Ehud, "to be united, unity"  [Compare Levi, "attached."]
(5) Jachin (3199) one of the pillars of Solomon, from (3559) "to be erect, to set up, establish" [Cf Nachon (5225), son of Issachar. Note: Ohad/Ehud and Jachin are listed only in Genesis 46:10 and Exodus 6:15.]
(6) Zerah, "to appear"  ["Zerah the Cushite," rival of Asa.]
(7) Shaul, "asked for" [King Asa, the son of "a Canaanite woman," i.e., a Shechemite princess.]

The genealogy of Simeon is annotated with material (1 Chron. 4:27-43) that clearly belongs to the Egyptian Middle Kingdom.  However the genealogy itself (verses 24-26) appears to be a composite of both Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom persons.  This is not surprising now that it is realized that the New Kingdom princes deliberately patterned themselves after Middle Kingdom archetypes.  This included the naming of their sons. 

We find that the eldest "son" of Simeon was called Nemuel, possibly meaning or connoting "seizer of God."  The New Kingdom person that fits this description is Nimlot/Judah, the younger brother and erstwhile "son" of Siamun..  In the two other genealogies of Simeon (Genesis 46:10 and Exodus 6:15), the eldest son of Simeon is not called Nemuel, but by the variant Jemuel. The name Jemuel fully embodies the meaning of Thutmose IV's praenomen, which is Menkheprure.  Men is the Egyptian root for "enduring" or "everlasting." Kheper represents the sun in its daily rising.  Jemuel is derived from the Hebrew word yowm, meaning "hot," and connotes "always, continually, daily, (for) ever (-lasting)."  The Egyptian god Re would not have been directly preserved in a Biblical pseudonym of Thutmose. The more acceptable "El" was incorporated instead, which also better reflects the Canaanite rendition of Thutmose's chosen prenomen.

The Hebrew word nemar means "a leopard," and the place name Beth Nimrah means "House of the Leopard."  It is derived from namar, "to spot or stain as from dripping"  In Egyptian lore, the blood of the god Sia (protector of the royal "family jewels") dripped from his mutilated penis.  Simeon (Siamun) demanded that all the Shechemite men be circumcised, and then mutilated the rest of their bodies.  As with the ant, the symbol of the leopard (in subtle distinction to the lion) seems to relate Sheshonq and Iuput to Siamun (Simeon).  However, Sheshonq (and later Iuput) likely identified less with the disgraced Siamun, and more with the trauma endured by his mother, the Shechemite heiress and her Shechemite relatives.

Cf Nimrah, "clear (filtered/dripped) waters"
Cf Lemuel/Lemoel, "a symbolic name of Solomon" according to Strong's Concordance

The royals of Shechem are called "Hivites."  The name Hivite (Chivviy-2340) derives from chavvah (2332), "life-giver."  This designation of Hivite suggests that the natives of Shechem identified with or descended from a great king of the past, such as Inyotef II/Wah-ankh, Salitis (Joshua I) or Apophis/Tao I/Sanakhtenre (Jesse). The desire of Biblical Levi to rule over the city points to the Levi of the Middle Kingdom, pharaoh Montuhotep II, whose prenomen was Sankhare, "Giving Life to the Soul of Re").   Like Shechem, the Hivite city of "Gibeon was an important city, like one of the royal cities."  -Joshua 10:2 (New International Version); See also Joshua 9:1-26. 

In the New Kingdom, the marriage of Simeon to the "Canaanite woman" or "Canaanitish woman," (Gen. 46:12) represents a Shechemite princess.  Strictly speaking, she was not a Canaanite, but was a royal (Hamitic) princess with regional ties to Canaan.  This marriage represented a reuniting of a collateral royal line. Earlier, Tao II (Gideon/Baal) had also been the son of a Shechemite princess named "Maacah."  See Chapter 10.  Probably, the Middle Kingdom Simeon (Naram-Sin) had also married a "Canaanite woman."

Another "son" of Simeon is called Ohad/Ehud, which means "to be united, unity."  This has the same meaning as the name Levi ("attached"). In the Middle Kingdom, Levi was a Hebrew name of Montuhotep II.  In the New Kingdom, Levi corresponds to Khaemwast.  He was the third son of Jacob (Amenhotep II) and the younger brother and constant companion of Simeon (Siamun).  In the rigid pecking order of the royal court, both Levi (Khaemwast) and Judah (Thutmose IV) would have initially been considered the subordinates, i.e., the "sons" of Simeon.  Simeon was the second oldest, Levi the third, and Judah the fourth.  For this reason, they may have later been remembered as true sons of Simeon, rather than political sons.  It also may reinforce in the case of Nemuel/Jemuel that the son of Judah by the "Canaanite woman" legally belonged to Simeon.  Sheshonq (Shishak/Shaul/Asa) became a chieftain of the Ma only after the disgrace of Siamun (Simeon).

Note 6:

Genesis 49:14-15 (KJV)
"Issachar is a strongasscouchingdown between two burdens:  And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute."

In the following Hebrew definitions from the "blessing of Issachar" note the word plays involving Hamor (chamar), Shechem (sekem), Zabad (abad/yah'abad), Asa (saw-bal), and the Libyan tribe of the Ma/Meshwesh (mas/mees/mish). Cf Ba’asa/Baasha.

strong (1634) gerem/garam; a bone (as the skeleton of the body); hence self, i.e. (fig.) very:- bone, strong, top

ass (2543) chamowr/chamor; a male ass (from its dun red):- (he) ass
from (2560) chamar, to boil up, hence to ferment (with scum); to glow (with redness);... foul, red, trouble

couching (7257) rabats; to crouch (on all four legs folded, like a recumbent animal); by impl. to recline, repose, brood, lurk, imbed;- crouch (down), fall down, make a fold, lay

down (7812) shachah; to depress, i.e. prostrate (espec. reflex. In homage to royalty or God):- bow (self) down . . . worship

burdens (4942) mishpath; a stall for cattle (only dual):- burden, sheepfold
from (8192) shaphah; to abrade, i.e. bare:- high, stick out

The traditional territory of Issachar (established in the Middle Kingdom) was Syria and Assyria, between two "sheepfolds" of Egypt and Babylon.

saw (7200) ra'ah; to see, regard, respect, spy, stare, view, visions

rest (4496) menuwchah/menuchah; repose or (adv.) peacefully; fig. consolation (spec. matrimony); hence (concr.) an abode:- comfortable, ease, quiet, rest (-ing place), still

good (2896) towb/tobe; good, a good man:- beautiful, sweet
from (2895) towb; cheer

land (776) erets; the earth, nations, world

pleasant (5276) na'em; agreeable (lit. or fig.):- pass in beauty, be delight, pleasant, sweet

bowed (5186) natah; to stretch or spread out; by impl. to bend away (include. mor. deflection); afternoon, decline, go down, be gone, overstretched, overthrown, turn (aside, away)

shoulder (7926) shekem; the neck (between the shoulders) as the place of burdens; fig. the spur of a hill:- back, x consent, portion, shoulder. Cf Shechem.

bear (5445) cabal/saw-bal'; to carry, be burdensome; spec. to be gravid:-bear, be a burden, carry, strong, to labour

became (1961) hayah; to exist, i.e. be or become

servant (5647) abad; to work. Cf Z’abad/Zabad.

tribute (4522) mac/mas or mic/mees; prop. A burden (as causing to faint), i.e. a tax in the form of forced labor:- discomfit, levy, task [-master], tribute(-tary).
from (4549) macac/maw-sas'; to liquefy; fig. to waste (with disease), to faint, with fatigue, fear or grief):- discourage, faint, be loosed, melt (away), refuse

Note 7:

The "blessing" of Simeon by Jacob found in Genesis 49:5-7 contains nothing but condemnation. However, the order of genealogies in the book of 1 Chronicles is telling.  The family of Judah is listed first, followed by Simeon, and only then comes the eldest son Reuben.  This order suggests that Simeon was considered, at least by some, to be the de jure founder of the 22nd Dynasty, which after the 18th Dynasty line of Judah became the most prominent in Upper Egypt (the land of Judah). The 22nd Dynasty also preceded the rise of the 19th Dynasty, which was founded by a grandson of Reuben.  (Reuben's line is discussed in Chapter 28.)

The declaration of Sheshonq as king coincided closely with the premature death of Thutmose IV.  If Sheshonq had been the true son of Simeon, this probably would not have occurred. After the Shechemite incident, Simeon was again censured for his plot to kill Joseph.  Simeon may have been forgiven by Joseph, but there is no indication that favor was restored by his father Jacob, or that he was able to establish a lasting kingly line.

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