Living in Truth:
Archaeology and the Patriarchs

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by Charles N. Pope
Copyright 1999-2004, 2016 by Charles Pope
United States Library of Congress
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Chapter 13
"The Day of Reckoning"
Djehuty: Early 18th Dynasty Priest, King, General, Viceroy, Scribe and Treasurer
(The Egyptian name and titles of Abraham)


Count Abraham

In Egypt Abraham "sojourned" and died. The humble sacrifices of Abraham are plainly attested in the Torah. However, his weighty Egyptian name and lofty titles are disguised. Likewise, the Egyptian name and high office that Abraham bestowed upon his beloved Ishmael are only alluded to in the Scriptures. The fuller knowledge of this most renowned father and his children was buried by the silt of time and eclipsed by an age of religious intolerance. For three thousand years mankind has drifted as the sand on the shore, and shifted with the stars in the sky. Yet, what was once hidden has at last come to light. From Egypt Abraham rises again like a rock in the tide, and returns as the new moon after many a dark night. Through archaeology, we can now reconstruct the historical identities of Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac, along with their real-life achievements.

In Chapters 10, 11 & 12, it was demonstrated that the reigns of the early New Kingdom pharaohs Tao II, Kamose, Ahmose, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I and Thutmose II were not sequential, but overlapped substantially. Abraham was shown to be the faithful elder half-brother of both Tao II and Thutmose I. The pharaohs Kamose, Ahmose and Thutmose II were his nosey nephews. Amenhotep I the son of Ahmose, was an understudy of Abraham in astronomy, if not diplomacy. In Genesis 23:6, Abraham is called "a mighty prince among (them)." Although Abraham may not have assumed the title of pharaoh,a he was considered a king, both in Mesopotamia and in Egypt. Kingship is implicitly denounced in the Torah. However, considering his character and high calling, the Genesis author thought it only right to discretely "reckon unto" Abraham his former kingly status. In Genesis 14, Abraham is given the pseudonym of Shem-eber king of Zeboiim (Memphis). Shemeber is translated as "Illustrious." However, it is also a compound name comprised of Shem (Sabium) and Eber (Hammurabi). These two ancestors were not only kings, but also masters of the sciences, law and philosophy (See Chapter 8). Abraham was placed in their company, not only with respect to wisdom, but also in kingship. Zeboiim, that is Memphis, was the ancient seat of kingship and wisdom in Egypt.

Given that almost all of the pharaohs of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty were named either Amenhotep or Thutmose, it could almost be deduced that the de jure founder of the dynasty (at least from the perspective of the Torah) must also have been an Amenhotep or Thutmose. The latter turns out to be the case. In this essay, Abraham will be identified as the strangely prominent and wide-ranging nobleman Thutmose of the early 18th Dynasty. This "mighty prince" is traditionally referred to in the literature by the Egyptian form of his name, Djehuty or Djehutymes, in order to avoid confusion with the pharaohs named Thutmose. The Egyptian Djehutymes and Greek form Thutmose have the meaning, "Child of Thoth" or "Thoth is Born/Reborn."

In Gen 15:5-6 (KJV), Abraham is told: " 'Look toward heaven, and number the stars, if you are able to number them.' Then he said to him, 'So shall your descendants be.' And he believed the Lord; and he reckoned it to him as righteousness." "The two versions of the Book of Two Ways, both apparently composed at Middle Egyptian Hermopolis, also included sections referring to an afterlife in which deceased commoners become stars in the sky, along-side the moon god Thoth."b Thoth was: "The ancient Egyptian god of learning and wisdom, associated with the moon. He was called the 'Lord of Heavens,' 'Beautiful of Night' and the 'Silent Being' in various eras."c

"Thoth also appears in the Bible. In the Book of Job {38:36}, which dates back to the 6th Century or beyond, one finds the lines:

Who put wisdom into thwt?

Who gave sekwi understanding?

In his authoritative commentary on Job, Professor Marvin Pope writes about this as follows:

'J.G.E Hoffmann was probably right in taking thwt to refer to the god Thoth himself. The consonantal orthography corresponds rather closely to the form of the name that prevailed in the 18th Dynasty (dhwty), when the worship of Thoth was at its peak and spread to Phoenicia...' "d

"Thoth was regarded as both the heart and tongue of the great sun god Ra... Thoth was also called Tehuti, 'the measurer'... The Greeks identified Thoth with their god Hermes, and they credited him with inventing astronomy and astrology, the sciences of numbers and mathematics, geometry and land surveying, medicine, and botany. Also, they believed he was the first to organize religion and government, and to establish the rules concerning the worship of the gods... In the Book of the Dead he is called the 'scribe of Maat,' or justice... Variants of his name are Techu, Techuti, Thaut, Thouth, Thouti, Dhouti, Zehuti, and Zhouti. Thoth is the form that the name Djehuti or Zehuti took in Greco-Roman times."e

The Biblical narrative alludes to Abraham's love of counting. "Since the moon was regarded as the natural measurer of time, Thoth, a moon god, was the master of chronology and counting."f During the co-reign of Thutmose III (Isaac) and Hatshepsut, the nobleman Djehuty was placed over the treasury. On a tablet, Djehuty wrote of Hatshepsut: "I saw the collection of booty by this mighty ruler from the vile Kush, who are deemed cowards. The female sovereign, given life, prosperity and health forever."g

William Murnane writes:h

"Djehuty, who served as director of the treasury during the coregency of Thutmose III and Hatshepsut, describes the range of the treasurer's activity in his tomb autobiography.

'{I counted up} ivory, ebony, and the many fruits of {this} foreign land (= Nubia) as the tax of each year. I placed my seal on the best {of the products belonging to the inhabitants of} the northern regions - Asiatic gold, silver, copper, {and..., as well as} every sweet-smelling {flower}. I reckoned up what the mayors gave, and I received all their dues. His Majesty repeated {the favoring (of me) when he caused that I be sealer of the double treasury, which is filled} with silver, gold, lapis lazuli, turquoise, and every noble gemstone.'i

"Djehuty held a number of priest-hoods in his native region of Middle Egypt, and his successor Senemioh functioned as 'guardian of the divine offerings of Amon' and 'scribe who counts the cattle of Amon' before he was elevated to the treasury. Both men went on to high positions, probably sinecures, in the administration of local clergies - Djehuty again, as overseer of priests in Middle Egypt, and Senemioh as steward of Montu in Armant."j

The connection of Djehuty with Middle Egypt is significant. Three generations later, the city of Akhmin in Middle Egypt (one of three Biblical "Midians") was still recognized as the family seat of Yuya (Joseph II/Reuel II), where he and his son Aye (Ithra II/Jethro II) were priests of the fertility god Min.k

Djehuty's natural son and heir was Senemioh. The Egyptian name Sen-em-ioh means "Man of the Moon (God/Goddess)." Another popular Egyptian royal name of the period was Ah-mose, meaning "Child of the Moon." Senemioh is an appropriate name for the son of the luminary Djehuty. Martin Bernal also notes that the Egyptian word for moon, i'o, is associated with both Isis and Hagar, mother of Ishmael.l Isis (Sret) was identified in previous chapters of this book as the assumed Egyptian name of Sarah. In the Bible, the son of Abraham by Hagar is called Ishmael. The Egyptian root Sen ("man") is equivalent to the Chaldean/Hebrew word iysh (376), "a man," which sometimes also indicates a divine man. The variant Yishma'el (3458) means, "God {he} will hear," from the Hebrew word shama (8085) "to hear intelligently."m The name Ishmael would have been an adapted Hebrew nickname derived from his formal Egyptian birth name, or possibly the other way around.n That is, the Egyptian name could have been derived from a Hebrew birth name. The appointment of Senemioh to the stewardship of the war-god Montu is consistent with Ishmael's characterization as a fighting man (Gen. 16:11-12;25:18), and as the son of the highly decorated General Djehuty.

The 1st Century A.D. Jewish historian Josephus wrote: "Abram reigned at Damascus, being a foreigner, who came with an army out of the land above Babylon, called the land of the Chaldeans."o In Genesis 14 and Judges 6-7, Abraham took command of the army, and is said to have chased Khedorlaomer and his allies as far as Damascus. It was Mamre/Gideon (Tao II) who continued the pursuit until the invading kings were captured and put to death. Papyrus Harris 500 (from the reign of Thutmose III) recounts the exploits of General Djehuty, including his legendary capture of Joppa by sending them basket-laden mules carrying soldiers rather than gifts.p The capture of Joppa like the defeat of Khedorlaomer was accomplished by Djehuty through an elaborate ruse.

Thutmose III recognized the contributions of General Djehuty to the Empire by presenting him with an exquisite gold plate or bowl. This trophy is part of the Egyptian collection of the Louvre and can be viewed on the Internet at:

http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/bowl-general-djehuty

(Click on item #n0713. Click on files: n0713.htm and txt0713.htm)

The accompanying description reads:

"The patera (bowl) is made of hammered gold with an embossed and chased pattern. At the centre is a flower, a waterlily, seen from above; around it are stylized fish and papyrus, themes also found on contemporary blue ceramic bowls. An inscription engraved around the edge explains that this magnificent gold piece was offered by the ruler Thutmosis III to general Djehuty for his faithful services abroad."

William Murnane comments on the bowl stating: "To the incidence of high 'commissioners' outranking their juniors, add the isolated title of one Djehuty (under Thutmose III), who called himself 'overseer of a part of the northern foreign territory.' "q

The National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden, The Netherlands houses a gold bracelet believed to have belonged to General Djehuty. The bracelet can be viewed at:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Djehuty_(general)

A museum description reads: "Examples of these bracelets, called a'a (the big one), made of wide rectangular bands of gold are rare. The bracelet probably comes from the burial goods of General Djehuty."

Thutmose III would have presented the gold bowl (and possibly the bracelet) to the great one (a'a) Djehuty (Abraham) well into his joint rule with Hatshepsut. The inscription from the tomb of Djehuty cited above indicates an acceptance or at least acquiescence of the sovereignty of Hatshepsut. Even more surprising, archaeology suggests a closer association of Djehuty (Abraham) with Senemioh (Ishmael) than with Thutmose III (Isaac). In Chapter 12, it was shown that Ishmael was the natural son of Abraham. On the other hand, Isaac was his legal son through Sarah and Abimelech. After Sarah's death, the Bible states that Abraham took another wife Kenturah. Abraham lived long enough after the death of Sarah to have six more sons by her (Gen. 25:2).

Genesis 25:6 states that Abraham sent the sons of his concubines "away to the east." However, it is now evident that Hagar was more than a concubine, and Ishmael was not among the sons that were sent away from Isaac. In the previous chapter, it was shown that Abraham insisted that Ishmael be blessed (with Egyptian titles and territories). The "Lord" (first Tao I and then Thutmose I) swore an oath to honor Ishmael. The temple of Montu at Armant (Hermonthis) where Senemioh was Steward was only 9 km to the south of Thebes on the opposite bank of the Nile. "A temple to Montu {at Armant} existed at the site from at least the 11th Dynasty, with continued growth in the Middle and New Kingdom times. It was largely destroyed at some point in the Late Period, however, and only the remains of the pylon of Tuthmosis III survive from this structure ... Building also continued here in the Roman period. Unfortunately, in the 19th century the Pasha Muhammad Ali razed whole temples both here and at Elephantine in order to build sugar refining factories, and hardly anything now remains of the temples of this site."r Ishmael (Senemioh) was Steward of the Temple of Montu at Armant that Isaac (Thutmose III) built there. This suggests that there was no conflict between Isaac and Ishmael during their lifetimes. Ishmael along with Isaac attended to the burial of Abraham,s which is another indication that Ishmael was still living and governing within Egyptian territory.

Coincidentally, all three prominent royal men of the early New Kingdom named for the god Thoth (Egyptian Djehuty) played a critical role in the succession of Thutmose III (Biblical Isaac). Pharaoh Thutmose I (Abimelech) was the natural father of Thutmose III (See Chapters 9, 12 & 14). Pharaoh Thutmose II (Perez/Ephron), having no royal son of his own through Hatshepsut, "attached" Thutmose III to his own line. In this essay, it was shown that the story of Abraham is based on the high-ranking nobleman Thutmose (Djehuty/Djehutymes). By association, Isis (Sarah), mother of Thutmose III (Isaac), was the legal wife of Djehuty and not a minor wife of Thutmose II as previously thought. Therefore, Djehuty (Abraham) would have been considered to be the legal father of Thutmose III (Isaac). This explains the peculiar devotion of Thutmose III to Djehuty.

Wandering Aramaean and Djedhi Knight

It is now possible to retrace the "wanderings" of Abraham from Egyptian sources.

Indeed, Abraham (Djehuty) was active throughout the early New Kingdom period. When hostilities broke out between pharaohs Kamose and Apophis, Djehuty was ensconced at the city of Nefrusy in the district of Hermopolis. On his way to Avaris in the Delta, Kamose stopped to attack Nefrusy in Middle Egypt. Kamose accused the king of Nefrusy, named by him as "Teti son of Pepi" of making it a "nest of Asiatics." Kamose wrote: "I broke down his walls, I killed his people, and I made his wife come down to the riverbank."t It seems that the king and queen of Nefrusy were spared, but little else.

The name Pepi is a form of Apophis. Teti is a form of the Djehuty. The king of Nefrusy that Kamose felt justified in harassing was none other than Abraham (Teti) son of Terah (Apophis I). The Tet was "the symbol of Osiris, frequently found as an amulet, that represented 'stability' or 'durability.'... Variant spellings are the Ded and Djed."u "Originally Thoth was Djeduti or 'he of Djedu', in turn meaning "he of where the Djed is." The Djed was a section of the spinal column of Osiris and was the single most important relic in the records kept by Thoth."v Osiris was also the brother-husband of Isis. Abraham, the Biblical model of stability and durability, was the brother-husband of Sarah, the 18th Dynasty Isis.w

Mark Amaru Pinkham writes, "The climax of Osiris' drama was the raising of the Djed column, an event which symbolized the rebirth of the life force as well as the resurrection of a Djedhi initiate.... The name by which they referred to the column/spine, Djed, includes the root Dj, a epithet of the fire serpent which dwells within the spine as its root and innermost essence.... At the conclusion of a Djedhi candidate's three days of entombment, the rising serpent fire would finally arrive at its destination within the head and dissolve into pure Spirit. At that moment the candidate would finally achieve the fruit of all his arduous spiritual practices and become an immortal Djedhi and 'Stable One', i.e., one who had raised the djed, elevated the serpent, and overcome death. From that point onwards the new Djedhi was known as a Kheper or 'Arisen One,' a term derived from Khephri, the 'resurrected' beetle."x

Note: The Tet (Djed) was also strongly associated with the city of Mendes in the Delta, whose symbol was the Ram of Mendes. In Biblical tradition, Abraham sacrificed the ram in the place of Isaac. S'mendes, founder of the 21st Dynasty was also known as Nesubanebdjed, "He who belongs to the Ram of Djede/Mendes."

The town of Nefrusy was only a short distance from Hermopolis, which had been a center of the Thoth cult from at least the Middle Kingdom. Directly across the Nile from Nefrusy was Tel-el-Amarna, which would later in the dynasty become the refuge of Hermes (Thoth) Trismegistus, i.e., Akhenaten. "Thoth, a deity associated with writing, had, at least in the historical period, a very strong cult following in Hermopolis."y "Tehuti {Djehuty} is the Egyptian patron of learning, knowledge, and wisdom. The Greek rendering of Tehuti is Thoth. He was equated with Hermes by the Greeks, and with Mercury by the Romans."z

Abraham was first and foremost a Babylonian. It is not surprising that he would harbor a large contingent of Babylonian advisors and other officials ("a nest of Asiatics"). The 1st Century AD Jewish historian Josephus made the following comments about Abraham:

". a man righteous and great, and skilful in the celestial science." (William Whiston translation)

"He {the pharaoh} also made him {Abraham} a large present in money, and gave him leave to enter into conversation with the most learned among the Egyptians; from which conversation, his virtue and his reputation became more conspicuous than they had been before."

"For whereas the Egyptians were formerly addicted to different customs, and despised one another's sacred and accustomed rites, and were very angry one with another on that account, Abraham conferred with each of them, and confuting the reasonings they made used of every one their own practices, demonstrated that such reasonings were vain and void of truth; whereupon he was admired by them in those conferences as a very wise man, and one of great sagacity, when he discoursed on any subject he undertook; and this not only in understanding it, but in persuading other men also to assent to him. He communicated to them arithmetic, and delivered to them the science of astronomy; for, before Abram came into Egypt, they were unacquainted with those parts of learning; for that science came from the Chaldeans into Egypt, and from thence to the Greeks also."aa

It was noted above and in Chapter 10 that Abraham (Djehuty) was typecast as a wise man in the tradition of Shem (Sabium/Amenemhet IV) and Eber (Hammurabi/Au-ibre). The name Djehuty itself is an identification with the god-king Thoth, the Patriarch Lamech (See Chapter 3). In Mesopotamia, Thoth was known by various names, including Nabu. Nabu was also known as the "scribe god, the divine scribe of destinies. As such he is also a scribes' god and patron of writing.... Because so much learning was transmitted in writing, he later joined Ea (Enki) and Marduk as a god of wisdom."ab We also saw in Chapter 10 that Abraham was compared to the "evangelist" Nabu who traveled "throughout the lands" garnering support for his exiled father Marduk/Re (Irad), son of Ea/Enki (Enoch). In Genesis 12-15 Abraham is likewise depicted as "crisscrossing" the land of Canaan and Egypt, and calling upon the name of his father, the Lord Se-nakht-en-Re. Abraham (Djehuty) was acting out his role as the "heart and tongue of Re."

Zecharia Sitchin writes, "Nabu had the same meaning and came from the same verb by which the Bible called a true prophet: Nabi, one who receives the divine words and signs and in turn expresses them to the people. The divine signs of which Nabu spoke were the changing Heavens..."ac The Heavens were ever changing. However, the splitting of the family empire signaled that it was time for the god Re to decrease and give way to another, namely Yahweh-Amen. This would have been urged by Abraham in order to follow the precedent established in the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. This had also been a time of division. Through allegiance to Amen, the collateral line in Egypt was able to regroup and ultimately recover the lands of Mesopotamia as their "rightful" inheritance. As a philosopher, Abraham was quick to recognize that the circumstances of his clan were not new, but a repetition of earlier events. However, he was remembered not for demanding that his own birthright be honored. Nabu-Thoth was called "he who comes in peace." The Bible calls Abraham "Lord of Peace." He was a survivor. He was willing to compromise and submit himself to lesser men (and women) in order to achieve a higher good. He not only had great knowledge, but the courage to selflessly act upon it.

After the death of Kamose, pharaoh Ahmose joined forces with a new bully, Thutmose I. Together they pushed the southern limits of Egyptian rule beyond the Second Cataract. Djehuty was appointed by Ahmose as Viceroy of Nubia (Kush).ad At this time, Qasr Ibrim in Nubia was established, and became a site of considerable activity. The name Ibrim is an obvious variant of the Biblical Abram, "exalted father." However, in the Nubian language Ibrim means "foundation or origin," and is therefore more closely related to the Egyptian name Teti (Ded/Djed). On a statue of Amenhotep I (Hanun/Aner) found at Qasr Ibrim, the name of Merit-Amun, wife of Amenhotep I, was erased and replaced with that of Ahmose-Nefertari.ae Usersatet, Viceroy of Nubia under Amenhotep II (Patriarch Jacob), also built a chapel there. This chapel was rescued by the UNESCO Project from the rising waters behind the Aswan Damn, and is now exhibited at the Nubian Museum in Aswan, Egypt. In his chapel, Usersatet placed himself between Horus of Aniba to his right and the goddess Satet to his left. Satet "was a local form of the goddess Isis. She is sometimes called Isis-Satis or Isis-Sothis."af

During his long career, the "mighty prince" Djehuty held the wide-ranging titles of King in Damascus and Nefrusy, Overseer of Priests in Middle Egypt, Viceroy of Nubia, General of the Armies of Egypt, Commissioner ('overseer of a part of the northern foreign territory'), Scribe, and Director of the Treasury. The priestly nature of Djehuty, his international orientation, great wealth and propensity for "reckoning" were certainly the basis for the Biblical characterization of Abraham.

Elizabeth Thomas reports the name of an early 18th Dynasty nobleman Djehuty-nefer from the DB320 mummy Cache.ag Nicholas Reeves notes that the mummy of Amenhotep I was re-interred in a coffin made for the "wab ('pure') priest Djehutymose."ah Djehuty-nefer is not mentioned by Reeves and Djehuty-mose is in turn not mentioned by Thomas, however it seems evident that these are variants of the same name. Possibly, there is a link between this epithet of Djehuty, nepher ("beautiful") and the city where he had once been king, Nefrusy. It could also have been used in identification with Osiris. Djehuty built a tomb at Dra abu el-Naga (Western Thebes), but was later placed in an even more prestigious house of eternity. Genesis 25:9 (NIV) states that: "His sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah near Mamre, in the field of Ephron son of Zohar the Hittite, the field Abraham had bought from the sons of Heth. There Abraham was buried with his wife Sarah." Substituting the Egyptian identities, this passage would read: "His sons Thutmose III and Senemioh buried him in the tomb near Tao II, in the Ta-sekhet-aat ('The Great Field') of Thutmose II son of Nahor of the line of Inyotef (Sargon), the field Djehuty had bought from the sons of Terror. There Djehuty was buried with his wife Isis."

Excavator John Rose and the rugged entrance to KV 39 are pictured on page 89 of The Complete Valley of the Kings by Nicholas Reeves and Richard Wilkinson. Reeves and Wilkinson write: "Rose's clearance of K39 produced over 1,350 bags of potsherds, calcite fragments, pieces of wooden coffins, textiles, fragments of metal, mud jar sealings, cordage, botanical specimens and human skeletal remains - 'of at least nine persons'. Among the inscribed material is a group of unusual sandstone dockets bearing cartouches in blue of Tuthmosis I, Tuthmosis II(?) and Amenophis II. 'A calcite fragment bearing the title of the tomb owner ... and a gold signet ring bearing the name of a famous pharaoh of the 18th dynasty' were also found." The excavation began in 1989 and continued for several seasons. However, Rose suffered a stroke in 1994 and was unable to analyze all of the material removed from the tomb. With the help of colleagues, an excavation report was sacrificially published in the summer of 2000.ai According to Rose the title of the tomb owner was found on an inscribed fragment of an alabaster jar, which he notes is of the type normally associated with a "funerary context."aj The title itself reads: "The Osiris, Overseer/Steward of the House of Amun." This is a very strange title indeed, however it fits Djehuty (Abraham) perfectly. Moreover, the "famous pharaoh" who donated a signet ring to the burial was Thutmose III, the legal son of Djehuty.

Most of the 1,350 bags are in storage on the West Bank of Luxor. There are still about a dozen boxes in the tomb vestibule that contain additional bags of debris. Why these were not also removed is uncertain. Some have been rifled and contribute to the litter that is now strewn about the tomb opening and entrance corridor. KV39 is oldest tomb in the Valley of the Kings, and is the closest to the pyramidal face of el-Qurn, which rises majestically above the royal burial ground. It is sadly ironic that the tomb of the most venerated man in Egypt lies completely neglected, while millions of visitors a year pass in review only a stone's throw below it.


  1. There was a pharaoh of the late 17th Dynasty called Djehuty. This could represent Abraham as a young prince, before the troubles that led to his father being deposed in Babylon. If so, Abraham was the first co-regent of Tao I in Egypt, but later stripped of that status.
  2. Religion in Ancient Egypt, Leonard Lesko, p 102.
  3. Margaret Bunson, A Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, p 264.
  4. Martin Bernal, Black Athena, Vol I, p 144.
  5. Anthony Mercatante, Who's Who in Egyptian Mythology, p 190.
  6. Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 184.
  7. [Urk. IV:438.10f.] Quoted from: http://hsc.csu.edu.au/ancthist/courses/23unit/pers_grp/hatshep/8/page6.htm
  8. W. Murnane, "The Organization of Government under Amenhotep III," in Amenhotep III, D. O'Connor and E. Cline, eds., University of Michigan Press, 1998, pp 187-8.
  9. K. Sethe Urkunden der 18. Dynastie. 2nd ed., rev Fascs. 1-16. Leipzig: JC Hinrichs (1927-1930) 436:4-16 (= Burkhardt [1984] 71. See also, Ibid., 420-30, 437-39 (= Burkhardt [1984] 63-69, 71-72); W. Helck, Zur Verwaltung des Mittleren und Neuen Reichs. Probleme der Agyptologies 3. Leiden: E.J. Brill (1958) 397-99.
  10. Ibid. 397-401, 508-9 (2-3).
  11. For the association of Aye with Akhmin, see: Cyril Aldred, Akhenaten King of Egypt, pp 219-221.
  12. Martin Bernal, Black Athena, Vol I, p 95.
  13. Hebrew definitions from Strong's Exhaustive Concordance.
  14. Cf iysh-em (Sen-em) and Yishma'el with yishma (3457) "desolate," from yasham (3456) "to lie waste:- be desolate." The descendants of Ishmael became desert lords.
  15. The Complete Works of Josephus, translated by William Whiston, p 32.
  16. N. Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, p 217. See also: www.british-museum.ac.uk/egyptian/EA/GALL/harris.html
  17. W. Murnane, "Imperial Egypt and the Limits of Power," in Amarna Diplomacy, eds. Cohen & Westbrook, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000, p 250 (note 49) - citing C. Lilyquist, "A Gold Bowl Naming General Djehuty: A Study of Objects and Early Egyptology." Journal of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 23 (1988): 13, 1-68.
  18. Richard Wilkinson , "The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt", p 200.
  19. Genesis 25:9
  20. Carnarvon Tablet, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., pp 232-233; Kamose Stela, Ibid., 554-555.
  21. Anthony S. Mercatante, Who's Who in Egyptian Mythology, p 188.
  22. Quoted from Tom Gilmore, T Byron G Publishing, http://www.tomgilmore.com/tehuti.htm
  23. Isis was associated with the Thet/Tit symbol.
  24. The Return of the Serpents of Wisdom, pp 200, 203-204, Adventures Unlimited Press, www.adventuresunlimited.co.nz
  25. David Silverman, Religion in Ancient Egypt, p 42
  26. Moustafa Gadalla, www.egypt-tehuti.com. See also www.egypt-tehuti.com/articles/tet-pillars.html and www.egyptianmyths.com/thoth.htm
  27. The Complete Works of Josephus, translated by William Whiston, pp 32-33.
  28. Jeremy Black and Anthony Green, Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, p 133.
  29. For commentary on Marduk and Nabu, see Zecharia Sitchin, When Time Began, p 324.
  30. A. Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, p 75.
  31. James E. Harris and Edward F. Wente, An X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies, 1980, University of Chicago Press.
  32. Anthony S. Mercatante, Who's Who in Egyptian Mythology, p 136.
  33. The Royal Necropoleis at Thebes, Princeton, 1966, p 229.
  34. The Complete Valley of the Kings, p 89.
  35. John Rose, Tomb KV 39 in the Valley of the Kings, Plymbridge Distributors Limited, England, email: clare@plymbridge.com (Clare Head) fax (0044 1752 202333) or telephone (0044 1752 202331)
  36. Ibid, p 150.
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