Living in Truth:
Archaeology and the Patriarchs

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by Charles N. Pope
Copyright ©1999-2004 by Charles Pope
United States Library of Congress
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Tutorial: Lesson 2
"Who Made You Judge Over Us?"
(The Memory of Dan and His Line as Judges in Egypt)

The Exile and Exodus of Re

Osiris had been hunted down and hacked to pieces by his rival brother Set with the help of "72 accomplices." Set was later ostracized for continued foul behavior. However, he was seemingly not arraigned much less found guilty in connection with the murder of Osiris. In fact, he was actually rewarded with half of Osiris' kingdom, bestowed by Geb,1 another participant in the murder. Amidst the broken memories of Osiris' death, the one ultimately held accountable was identified through a seemingly extraneous detail. The number 72 was associated with the god Re,2 and indirectly points to him as prime conspirator. Indeed, Re, who had been made judge of all Egypt, took the fall for having authorized the killing of his own "son."3 During most of pharaonic history Re was venerated as the leading god of Egypt. His high crime and peculiar punishment were therefore downplayed, disguised, and even forgiven, but not entirely forgotten, especially in Mesopotamia where this god was known as Marduk and Bel.

According to Mesopotamian sources, the humbling of Chief Justice Re was as follows: He was hastily arrested, tried, and condemned by an angry vigilante jury of gods organized by the widowed Isis. Next, Re was placed in a coffin and sealed up alive within a room of an artificial mountain in Egypt, ostensibly the "King's Chamber" of his very own shrine, the Great Pyramid at Giza.4 However, three days later the death sentence was overturned upon appeal by Thoth and commuted to exile. A human scapegoat was brought forward and sacrificed. Re was then released but driven out of Egypt and into the wilderness.5 He was not chastened any further after this, but allowed to renew his life and lordship in a "city of refuge" later known as Babylon.6 Damage caused by the forced reentry of the makeshift burial chamber, as well as the empty sarcophagus, remained behind as witnesses that he had "risen from the dead."7

The popular Mesopotamian name of Re, Marduk, can be translated as, "son of the pure mound."8 In ancient Egypt the word for pyramid was mr and the pyramid itself was referred to as a "pure mountain." True to his name, Marduk upon arriving in Babylon began to build a Mesopotamian-style pyramid called a ziggurat. Yet, within as few as seven years9 his proud work and personal rehabilitation were cut short by a second rebellion and the need to prepare for an impending Flood. It would be a much later exiled king modeled after Re, Hammurabi, who was to restore the "House of Marduk," called the Esagila temple, and also finish the aborted ziggurat, known as the Etemenanki. This Mesopotamian pyramid is referred to in the Bible as the "Tower of Babel."10

After the departure of Re from Egypt, the god Set killed again, this time Horus the Elder. Set was eventually compelled to lay down his weapons in deference to Thoth, Isis, and a new champion, Horus the Younger, but order was evidently not fully restored. When Re returned to shore up his former dominions in Egypt he found that a new regime was in place and the authority once granted to him by his father Ptah was no longer respected. A recollection from the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead describes the "children of Re" as fractious and guilty of atrocities. Thoth urges the Creator to limit their days. He decides to do that and more - to annihilate them by restoring the Earth to its primordial flooded state.11

Another Egyptian New Kingdom legend relates that the once exalted Re, having become both old and decrepit, paranoid and indignant, summoned his remaining faithful "sons" to discuss the fate of the world and rebellious mankind. Upon the urging of Re, Hathor stormed out in her identity as "The Great Flood"12 and soon began killing off the people with abandon.13 But when the water that covered the land turned blood red, Re repented of his murderous intent and instead decided to rescue the unruly subjects. It was later said that Re deliberately turned the waters of the Nile to the color of Hathor's favorite fermented drink, red beer. Having become intoxicated, she abandoned her zeal for destroying mankind and a remnant was saved.

Re Saved the Many, Ptah the Chosen Few

In Mesopotamian traditions, it was Ea (Ptah) rather than his son Marduk (Re) who was credited with saving souls from the Great Flood. Ea is an early Semitic (Akkadian) name and means "Dwelling (in) Water." His Sumerian name was Enki, "Lord (of the) Earth." This god also had multiple names in Egypt. In addition to Ptah, he was known in Upper Egypt and Nubia as Khnum, regulator of the annual inundation of the Nile.14 The names Ptah and Khnum both signify "Molder" or "Fashioner." Ptah was depicted "creating life on a potter's wheel."15 The god Khnum of Upper Egypt was specifically "The Potter God," and sometimes depicted as shaping a man or a king on his potter's wheel.16

Rather than acting to save the multitudes, Ea, god of the living waters, leaked news of the imminent flood to only one of his sons. In the Akkadian Legend of Adapa, the beneficiary of this privileged information is called the human offspring, the son of Ea, the capable, the blameless, the clean of hands, the sage, the most wise (atrahasisa), the model of men, Adapa.17 Adapa (Atrahasis), like the Patriarch Noah, was a sailor and was distinguished among his peers as an exemplary human. Adapa was submerged in his boat by a great storm, and also like Noah, he miraculously survived.

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the god Ea is quoted as saying, "I have revealed to Atrahasis a dream, and it is thus that he has learned the secret of the gods."18 The secret was that mankind would be destroyed by the Flood. In defiance, Adapa was not only forewarned by Ea/Enki, but also told how to survive it. During the torrent, Adapa exercised a "lord-like" ability to command and curse. Afterwards, Adapa (along with his wife) became "as the gods" in the sense of gaining a longer life. His triumph over the elements and divine fate also signaled the end of seven years of great tribulation upon mankind. By order of the great god Enlil they had suffered the ravages of famine, wild beasts, from plagues, and finally from the Great Flood.19 At last they could find rest, or so it was hoped.

Joseph the Dreamer

In the Biblical Jacob story, it is Joseph (placed in the role of Ea/Enki-Ptah) who warns of a coming seven-year catastrophe associated with water. He not only tells pharaoh what he has dreamed (effectively giving pharaoh the dream), but also provides the interpretation! He also knows precisely what action to take. Grain will be stored up during the seven years of plenty, and then distributed to relieve famine in the next seven years of want.

The pharaoh's dream features seven cows and seven stalks of grain. The cow in Egypt was the symbol of Hathor. The seven local cults of Hathor and their temples located at various places along the Nile in Egypt were called "The Seven Hathors." Joseph (as Ptah) predicts that the cows (symbolizing Hathor in her identity as the Flood) would be fat for seven years and then deathly lean for seven more years. In other words, seven good annual Nile floods and harvests were to be followed by seven disastrous ones.

The Nile thus personified as Hathor could force an exodus of the people by bringing too much water as well as too little. In times of inadequate flooding, the Nile made an apparent retreat to Nubia. Egypt would then be turned into a desert and Hathor was said to stalk and kill men as a hungry desert lioness called Sekhmet. Hathor (and the Nile) had to be cajoled by Ptah and Re into coming back to Egypt and return once again to her life-giving and agreeable form.20

Who's Your Daddy?

The identity of the true father of Re in Egypt was partially obscured. In the so-called "Memphite theology," Atum-Re (under the name Nefer-tem, "beautiful Tem") was the oldest son of Ptah, but all other gods and goddesses were also considered his children. Only in Mesopotamia was Ea/Enki (as Ptah) emphatically the father of Marduk (as Re). In the relationship of Marduk to Ea the source of the Biblical epithet Jacob is also apparent. The Hebrew Yah-chub means "beloved of Yah (Ea)."21 However, as noted above, in Egyptian theology from the 4th Dynasty onward, Re was merged with Atum and superseded even Ptah in the station of "Creator" and "Father of the Gods." Consistent with that supreme makeover, Biblical Joseph is considered one of the sons of Jacob rather than his father in the Book of Genesis. The other leading (and originally more senior) members of the pantheon, which included both gods and goddesses, are also found among the sons of Biblical Jacob, and for that same basic reason.

We have already discussed the six sons of Jacob by Leah, those being Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun. Leah was patterned after the goddess Hathor; Reuben after Geb; Simeon after Thoth; Levi after Set, Judah after Horus the Elder; Issachar after Osiris; and Zebulun after Isis. Apart from these children of Jacob, Dan is born first and then Naphtali. Gad and Asher come next followed by Joseph and Benjamin. The divine archetypes of these six "lesser sons" will now be explored.

The name and Blessing of Naphtali are decidedly feminine, and like that of Zebulun (Yzebel-Isis) derives not from a god but a goddess. Naphtali is compared to a wide wandering female deer and, fantastically, one that issues beautiful words or commands. In Egyptian nef means "beautiful, perfect," as in the name Nefertiti, "the beautiful one is come"22 In Hebrew, Naphtali is a play on Nephil (from naphal), a word that has meanings of "tyrant, bully, fallen/descended one, go forth, issue, scatter, expand." Nephilim is the title applied to the fallen race of giants spoken of in Genesis 6:4, and which we now understand to actually be that of the archetypal Patriarchs. The name Naphtali itself means, "my wrestling" and is derived from pathal, "to tangle, struggle with, to become intractable, offensive, rebellious, and contentious." It is also very similar in form and pronunciation to the word pathah, "to open (the womb), entice, deceive."

In his Blessing, Dan son of Jacob is called a serpent (nachash)23 and viper (shephiyphon).24 Dan, it says, will strike at a horse's heels and cause its rider to fall backward on the road. The word used for rider, rakab (raw-kab'), is a word play on Rahab (raw-khawb'), an epithet of the Mother Goddess (Hathor, Ninlil, etc.). Dan then represents Adam and his race, and is characterized as a lowly and venomous aggressor that will not allow a more advanced creature to pass him by unmolested. Like the viper he moves slowly on the ground. Rahab rides swiftly and upon her high horse.25

The terse description of Adam as ruddy is greatly amplified by the choice of words in the Blessing of Dan.26 Dan as a representation of Adam is fair-skinned, perhaps even more so than "deer" Eve,27 and a large, handsome, and virile member of his race. He has radiant, coppery red hair that covers all but the crown of his head. His face is distinguished by a prominent upper lip or moustache/beard, and by brow nodules or "horns." His voice is raspy. His speech is fluent but vain. He is prepared to use his teeth as a weapon. The ambush or attack from the rear (with greater numbers) is his preferred method of bringing down enemies or prey.28 He has wisdom gained by careful observation, and is always ready with crafty predictions and magical spells. Although not considered a proper king,29 he judges his widely dispersed people, which are later counted or assimilated as a Biblical tribe.30

This Time or the First Time?

The Adam also known as Dan was not the first man, but a leader of a large group of people. He is however depicted as a repetition of the first man. Yet, there are limits to what Dan can do to mimic his distant forebear. There is evidence from various traditions that the original Adam possessed both sets of sexual organs31 and gave birth through self-fertilization.32 In Egyptian myth, it was necessary for Atum, the first god-man, to masturbate in order to produce his daughter Tefnut and a son Shu.33 Tefnut later mated with both Atum and Shu, and also with sons born to her. The name Atum means "totality," apparently not only in the sense of "all men" but also "all women." Atum was considered self-created, that is, he was able to reproduce himself by himself, thereby becoming father and mother to himself.34

In the Biblical account, God first creates man, namely Adam, in his own image, perhaps being both male and female. Also, more than one such man may have been created as suggested by the Genesis text.35 Eve is only later formed from Adam's rib, that is his side, and more specifically it seems from his "feminine side." God then closes up Adam,36 and the female born to him grows up to become his wife. Regarding this first female, Adam is quoted as saying, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh,"37 which would have been quite literally and entirely true.

All is well with the first couple, however the command to reproduce, go forth, expand, and even subdue and rule over the earth is ignored or at least put off. They do not want to leave their secure love garden, and instead fall prey to a get-smart-quick scheme - an appealing short cut to enlightenment and godlikeness. Their appointed mission is not pursued until after they are disciplined and made to feel guilty and inferior for wanting something good and plainly in reach, yet jealously guarded as the exclusive property of a superior.

And just who was that superior, one so adept at psychological ploys? Little can be said about the "God" of the first man's fashioning, that is, the god who made Atum. Subsequent mock creations are however easier to comprehend. For example, among the first descendants of Atum, the god Ptah became the "creator" of mankind through a program of inbreeding. As noted above, Ptah was also known as Ea and Enki in Mesopotamia. His more senior brother Enlil was against the establishment of a servant caste, and later decided to rub them out. In the "paradise" of this Adam and Eve, Enlil plays the role of God and Enki is the serpent that encourages the new creatures to become as God. In ancient Mesopotamia, Enki personified cunning, and his emblem was a pair of intertwined serpents. He himself had eaten the "forbidden fruit" of incest. Enki also was bitterly cursed for this, but later restored to health and favor.38

In the much later time of Dan, the situation would have been quite different.39 The Blessings of Dan and Naphtali (discussed above) imply that the creative event of that era came about when two different races and cultures intermixed. A sophisticated people appeared suddenly in the Middle East and were perhaps greeted as if they were the gods themselves returning. A small number of people from one group (with certain advantages) were thereby able to take over the extensive territories of another more populous group.40 The method was for the predator to exploit the habits, and especially the superstitions, of the prey.

The plan began innocently enough with a proposal of brotherhood between respective leaders, and through the sharing of a common wife. This Eve, also called Naphtali, was not a new creature, but like Dan only a model specimen of a particular group or race. She came from Adam's "side," that is, was born to a woman of his own race and immediate family. However, she was not fathered by Adam but by a male of another race, that is, a leader of the other (opposite) side.

Through the offer of covenant, a gullible Adam and his people were charmed into letting their guard down. As the god Enki caused a "deep sleep" to fall over the primordial land of Abzu in order to subdue and rule over it, so the land of Adam is conquered, and by one posing as their own god and maker. Adam and his race are blinded by their own form of religion, and also their own fears and lusts, enamored as if by wine. By the time they wake up and realize what has happened, it is too late. They have been placed as if in chains to be destroyed.41

Within the animistic culture of this time and place, the "shrewd serpent" represents a great wise man of Adam's people, probably Adam's own father. Adam's wife, the naïve but inquisitive Eve is coaxed by her father-in-law to open her eyes and see through the white lies told by her own father-god. This act of subversion, possibly induced, is ultimately used by "God" to serve his "greater good." For it is in fact the one playing God that is the most deceptive. Because of the deed of only one, blame and curse can be laid by God upon all of Adam's people.

"God's" curse on the race of the "serpent" is given first and is arguably more severe than the curses placed on Adam and Eve. From this time forward Adam's race was to eat the dust kicked up by the new race of the woman. Genesis 3: 15 (KJV) reads: "I will put enmity between thee [the serpent] and the woman, and between thy seed [the serpent's race] and her seed [race]; it [the offspring of the woman] shall bruise thy head, and thou [the serpent's race] shalt bruise his heel." Victories by Adam's people over the new ruling house would be few and futile. The rich and sprawling land of E-den would not be known as the "House of Dan" very much longer.42

Dan the Neanderthal Man

Since the first edition of this book (posted over a decade ago), it has become evident that modern Europeans have a significant percentage of Neanderthal DNA in their genetic make-up.  This casts the Biblical story of Adam and Eve, as well as the characterization of “tribal Dan” in an entirely different light.  Dan, it seems, was an “Adam by a different Madam.”  In other words, Dan represented the Neanderthal race of man, which became cold-adapted and lived largely in isolation from the African continent.  When these two groups encountered one another in the modern day “Holy Lands” (due to “climate change” and other factors) they inevitably interbred.  The first offspring may have been largely sterile hybrids of imposing size and strength (judging by Biblical descriptions of the “Nepilim”).  Evenutally, a new race of Africans with Neanderthal admixture emerged and the original Neanderthal stock was doomed (“cursed”).

Although this will obviously remain a highly controversial subject, future genetic research should hopefully bring further clarification to Biblical and Mythological accounts.


  1. According to a late and highly stylized (distorted) rendition of the myth. Meeks & Favard-Meeks write in Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods, p 27, "The only detailed narrative we have of this drama [The Contendings of Horus and Seth] is Plutarch's Greek version. The Egyptian texts are for their part dispersed over several different periods and off only a nebulous mass of disjointed facts."
  2. In the Book of the Dead, which was not fully compiled until the late New Kingdom, Re has 72 names. Various chapters (or spells) in the Book of the Dead venerate Set. Others mention the role of Set in the killing of Osiris and portray him as bound for his crime. Re, however, as "Lord of Lords," is of course not directly impugned. The number 72 continued to be important in Jewish and Christian tradition.  During Greek rule it was said that 72 Jewish scholars independently created Greek translations of the Old Testament and all miraculously arrived at the exact same result. This of course was not literally true but reflected the divine status attributed to the work, the Septuagint. Even today, it is a common Judeo-Christian belief that God has 72 names.
  3. In Greek myth, Apollo (Set) and Persephone (Nephthys) having a mutual grudge against Aphrodite (Isis) appealed to Ares (Re). In response, Ares took the form of a boar (the symbol of Set) and gored Adonis (Osiris) to death. In other traditions, Apollo is explicitly named as the killer of Adonis. (Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (18.h) pp 69-70.)
  4. A similar fate was perhaps decreed by Re for Osiris. According to an alternate Egyptian legend, Seth tricked Osiris into lying down in a coffin, which was then nailed shut.
  5. This event is related to (and quite possibly the origianal basis for) the Biblical ritual of the scapegoat (as a means for propitiating sin). See Leviticus 16:7-10. The Hebrew word for scapegoat, azazel, means, "goat of departure/escape." More tellingly, Azazel in Hebrew lore is a leader of fallen angels. See, Gustav Davidson, A Dictionary of Angels, p 63. The Angel Azazel of the Book of Enoch, the Zohar, and The Apocalypse of Abraham is then one memory of the fallen god Re. In the story of Patriarch Jacob, the role if not the person of Re is more fully redeemed. In a separate tradition (reflected by Isaiah 14:12), Re and those who assumed his guise (such as Nebuchadrezzar II), were considered unredeemable figures, especially those who emulated Re in exile and exodus. For Nebuchadrezzar as an incarnation of Marduk-Re and a Moses-figure, see Chapter 40 of Living in Truth: Archaeology and the Patriarchs. See also Notes 6, 9, and 10 below.
  6. See Mesopotamian sources cited and discussion in Zecharia Sitchin, The Wars of Gods and Men, pp 197-199; 215-228. These sources include, The Death and Resurrection of Bel-Marduk, The Myths of Inanna and Bilulu, Inanna and Ebih ("Abode of Sorrowful Calling"), and other untitled works, such as one from the Babylonian section of the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. While this is not a blanket endorsement of Sitchin's theories, his reconstruction of Marduk-Re's ordeal is well documented. However, note that a reversal in location of the exile is necessary. That is, Marduk-Re was forced out of Egypt to Babylon for the murder of Dumuzi-Osiris, rather than the other way around (as Sitchin has it). Marduk-Re subsequently broke his exile and returned from Babylon to Egypt. This would have occurred as little as seven years later and shortly before the Great Flood.
  7. This was the apparent origin of the Egyptian "Opening of the Mouth" ceremony performed on pharaohs three days after their burial. It also finds expression in the trial and entombment of Jesus as described in the Gospels.
  8. Definition by Zecharia Sitchin.
  9. After the death of Osiris, Re mourned for seven years. Compare the double "seven year" exile of Jacob in Mesopotamia (Aram Naharaim) after his life was threatened by Esau for treachery. Also note that the exile of Jacob occurs before his apotheosis in Egypt rather than after. This is a reversal of the original pattern, which may have first occurred in the life of Sargon the Great, and who was the Jacob of his generation. With increasingly arid conditions in both Egypt and Mesopotamia, the element of Exodus almost went extinct. It was not until the end of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom that a flood event of sufficient magnitude occurred in Egypt to merit the revival of this role. However, rather than re-incorporate the Exodus into the Jacob complex, a new type of Marduk-Re was created, that of the Biblical Moses.
  10. The Genesis 11:1-9 account of the Tower of Babel contains elements of both construction efforts. It is in part a flashback to the homesteading of Marduk-Re that took place before the Great Flood. It also incorporates the restoration work of Hammurabi after the Great Flood. The "confusion of tongues" during the time of Hammurabi would have been brought about by the forced resettlement of peoples (deportation), which was done to better dominate them. Likely this was also considered necessary in order to emulate what the gods had done during Marduk-Re's exile. See Chapter 8 of Living in Truth: Archaeology and the Patriarchs for an expanded discussion of Hammurabi.
  11. Chapter 175 of the Book of the Dead. Note that in this chapter Re is merged with Atum as "Creator."
  12. This is the meaning of her epithet, Mehet-Weret. It corresponds to the Babylonian Tiamat and Biblical Rehab/Tehom.
  13. This Egyptian New Kingdom myth is variously called The Book of the Divine Cow and The Destruction of Humanity.
  14. In both Upper and Lower Egypt, the annual inundation itself was represented as the god Hapy. Early Christian writers such as Tertullian equated the Greco-Roman god Asar Hapi (Serapis) with Patriarch Joseph and call Isis the 'wife of Joseph.' " (R.E. Witt, Isis is the Ancient World, pp 53, 205, 272.) Ptah was then also associated with Hapy/Hapi/Hapu.
  15. Heike Owusu, Symbols of Egypt, p 85.
  16. Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 190.
  17. The Story of Adapa, a translation is provided in, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., pp 101-103.
  18. Jean Bottéro, Mesopotamia, p 109.
  19. The Legend of Atrahasis describes a seven-year tribulation upon mankind brought about by the god Enlil, who tries to first reduce the human population and then eliminate mankind altogether. Adapa was directed to build his boat during this period. (It was apparently in the seventh year that the Flood came and brought "rest.")
  20. According to the Drought Legend, Egypt suffered seven consecutive years of poor Nile floods and scant harvests during the reign of the Old Kingdom pharaoh Djoser. The pharaoh was promised by the god Khnum in a dream that in the following year good floods would resume, and that harvests would again be plentiful. This may have been the case, however we now know that Egypt was plagued with increasing drought until the beginning of the Middle Kingdom.
  21. Yechub, means "Cherished of Yah." However, in the Bible the name is deliberately modified to Ya'aqob (Jacob). Instead of meaning "Beloved of God," "Crowned by God" or "Ruling by/as God," the name of takes on the very different meaning of "heal-catcher (i.e. supplanter)." The names Ya-chub and Yo-seph are nearly synonymous. Chub/chob is a contraction of the word chabab, meaning "to hide (as in the bosom), i.e. to cherish (with affection), to love." The Biblical name Yechubbah means "hidden." Similar Hebrew words containing the phonic element of "seph" (tseph / tsaph) have meanings of "covering, encircling, crowning, northern (hidden, shadowed, dark), inundation, watching, expansion."
  22. Definition by Donald Redford, Akhenaten: The Heretic King, p 78. This name reveals that Nefertiti's own typecasting was as a Naphtali/Eve-figure.
  23. nachash (Strong's Concordance, 5175) "a snake (from its hiss), enchanter/enchantment, to divine, learn by experience, diligently observe, from a primitive root meaning to hiss, i.e. whisper a (magic) spell; to prognosticate." The word nachash is related to nechushtan, "copper serpent of the desert"; nechushta, "copper, base/filthy (as compared to gold and silver)"; nechushah, "copper"; and nachuwsh, "coppery, as the red color of the throat of a serpent when hissing."
  24. Shephiyphon (8207) related to shuwph, "to gape, i.e. snap at; fig. to overwhelm:- break, bruise, cover), a kind of serpent (as snapping), probably the cerastes or horned adder."
  25. The word translated as horse can alternately be a bird (in rapid flight). The leading goddesses are sometimes depicted as birds that move freely and frequently. The motif is recycled the final book of the Bible, Revelations (Chapter 12), in which a woman and her male offspring is again persecuted by a jealous dragon/serpent.
  26. The word for viper, shephiyphon makes for word plays with shaphiyr, "beautiful, fair"; shepher, "beauty, goodly"; and shephiy, "bareness/baldness." Compare also shephan, "bare spot,"; shaphan, "hiding,"; shapham; "beard, upper lip"; shaphal, "base, lowly"; shapat, "to judge"; shiphiy, "copious"; shiphrah/shepharphar, "brightness/dawn (as brilliant with aurora)."
  27. The goddess Hathor was however called "The White One."
  28. Compare the tactics of tribal Dan in Judges 18, perhaps patterned after Adam's people.
  29. The name Dan is however comparable to the title Adon, "Lord" (according to Strong's Concordance).
  30. Adam's race was persecuted, perhaps even subjected to a genocide, but a remnant may have been spared and later assimilated into tribal Dan.
  31. Androgyn(ous), hermaphrodite, and bi-sexual are words used to describe this now rare condition.
  32. Meeks & Favard-Meeks, Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods, p 66. See also,
  33. The "hand of Atum," as used in the act of self-fertilization, was thought of as feminine and ultimately attributed the status of a goddess.
  34. In certain myths the first human is considered to be a female rather than male, such as the Greek Gaia and Roman Cybele.
  35. Genesis 1:27
  36. Compare the Hebrew word atam (331) "to close (the lips and ears), to contract, narrow, shut, stop." Compare also itter (334) "shut up, impeded (as to the use of the right hand), from atar (332) "to close up, shut." Compare also the Hebrew at (328) "to move softly; a necromancer (from their soft incantations, gently:- charmer, gently, secret, softly." Compare the Sumerian words a, "side, arm"; dam, "wife, spouse"; ed, "issue/give birth to"; and ama, "mother."
    (See also,
  37. Genesis 2:23 (KJV)
  38. Enki and Ninhursag: A Paradise Myth, a translation is provided in Ancient Near Eastern Texts, J. Pritchard, ed., p 37-41.
  39. The Patriarchal Age is far too recent to be considered as a truly creative event. The many races of human beings on Earth vastly predate any written record, and differ primarily if not entirely along cosmetic and cultural dimensions. Advantage in the ancient world was not gained by race but from knowledge, and especially knowledge of the secrets of longevity. Adam and Eve are depicted in Genesis as a repetition of some far earlier and far more profound occurrence, perhaps even one involving a "divine (otherworldly) intervention."
  40. Something like Cortez among the Aztecs comes to mind. The lack of detail in Sumerian records about the preceding period indicates that kingship had been imported into the Near East, either by colonization or migration.
  41. In the Book of Jeremiah (Chapter 8), the superstitious, greedy, uncouth, and shameless citizens of Jerusalem are compared to the formerly snared, poisoned, punished, fallen and ultimately doomed people of Dan (Adam).
  42. Although enmity between Adam and Eve is not specifically mentioned, Adam is implicitly of the same seed as the serpent. After the betrayal of loyalty by Eve's husband and husband's kin, the honeymoon must have been over.
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