Two of the most common patterns in typecasting involve two sons of Joseph and two sons of Moses.
In myth, "Joseph" (Enki/Ptah) was father of "Moses" (Marduk/Re) and "Noah" (Adapa/Nynetjer).
"Moses" was in turn father of "Eliezer" (Damuzi/Osiris) and "Gershom/Joshua" (Lugalbanda/Horus).
These basic patterns are found throughout royal history.
For example, in the 18th Dynasty, Yuya ("Joseph") was father of Amenhotep III ("Solomon") and Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten ("Moses"). Note: Wise but oppressive Solomon/Obed was of the Noah type, and Akhenaten was not the first to play Moses.
Akhenaten (Rehoboam/Moses II) was in turn father of Smenkhkare ("Elijah/Eliezer II") and Tutankhamun ("Elisha/Joshua II").
In the 1st Century AD, Archelaus was typecast as "Rehoboam/Moses" by virtue of becoming the successor of Herod the Great ("Solomon"). The two eldest sons of Archelaus/Germanicus, namely Nero and Drusus, were typecast as an "Elijah" and "Elisha". This typecasting was frustrated by Tiberius Caesar. By the time Drusus came to power under the equestrian name Vespatian, he was far too old to play the role of a youthful Joshua figure. Instead, he passed on the role of Joshua to his son Titus and he himself played the unfulfilled role of Rehoboam-Moses that was originally assigned to his father Archelaus. Vespatian led the Jews out of Jerusalem to the "Promised Land" of Rome and Titus settled them.
In the Egyptian New Kingdom, there was a clear precedent for sharing roles between a father and son. Seti (Joash) wanted to assume the role of "Joshua" directly from Tutankhamun (Elisha). See 2 Kings 13:14-19. His desire was not granted in an immediate sense. And by the time Seti did take the throne, he was too old to be considered "the Joshua". So he shared that role with his son Ramses II (Jeroboam II). Compare 2 Kings 13:4-5 with 2 Kings 14:27.
Often a Jacob type followed a Joshua type in royal history. For example, Salitis/Joshua was succeeded by Yakhub-her in the Hyksos Period. In the early 18th Dynasty, the Joshua figure Thutmose III was followed by Amenhotep II, a Jacob figure. In the 19th Dynasty, Ramses II shared the typecasting of Joshua with his father Seti and shared the typecasting of Jacob with his son Hori. Hori subsequently shared the typecasting of Joseph with his son Piye.
Before his death, Antipater the "eldest son" of Herod the Great was heir apparent to the throne of Herod. Antipater was expected to become the "Rehoboam" and had already produced two young princes
that were expected to be the "Elijah" and "Elisha". Although Antipater was disgraced by Herod, his two young princes were not punished for the "sins of their father". In fact, according to the Gospel accounts, these two princes remained the primary "Elijah" and "Elisha" with the sons of Archelaus being twins or back-ups in these roles.
© Charles N. Pope, US Library of Congress. All rights reserved.