I have not as yet found a prominent Hasmonean whose death coincided with the father of Octavius/Augustus, but I have found a Roman that fits the bill.
He is Quintus Lutatius Catalus, arguably the most influential senator in Rome from the time of his own father's murder (by his rival and fellow-consul Marius) around 87 BC until his death around 58 BC. Catalus was an ultra-conservative and champion of traditional Roman values and the elite senatorial class (the "optimates"). He died after many storied defenses of the Republic, including two failed attempts to bring the rogue Claudian, Pubilus Clodius, to justice. An earlier Catalus had orchestrated the final settlement in the war with Carthage. Therefore, it was also a name associated with establishment of lasting peace. If the orphaned son of any Roman had a chance to become Rome's first Emperor it would have been that of Catalus.
I haven't been able to find any information about the wives or children of Catalus. Perhaps they can only be found under the rural Italian alias of Gaius Octavius (used at the Roman town of Velitrae). Gaius Octavius married Atia the daughter of a wealthy man of Velitrae by the name of Marcus Atius Balbus/Bibulus. The name Atius is however a variant of Atilus/Atalus, the hereditary king-name used in what became the Roman province of Asia. The name Catalus also encodes the king-name Atalus.
By Atia, Octavius became the father of Octavius/Augustus. Octavius died in Macedonia around 58 BC (where he was governor), and when his son was still a young child. Atia remarried Lucius Marcius Phillipus (consul of 56 BC), who claimed to be the descendant of Greek kings of Macedonia (adjacent to the kingdom of "Asia" in eastern Asia Minor/Turkey. Phillipus was presently ruling most conspicuously as Philip king of Syria, but this would not have been openly advertised in Rome. Technically, no king was supposed to set foot in the city! As it were, kings did regularly enter, but not in the guise of a king.
The elder Octavius died in Macedonia. In his final days Octavius' son Augustus traveled to the same town to draw his own last breath there as well.
My take on the many renowned Roman names, such as Appius Claudius, were that they functioned as titles that designated the holder as head not only of an elite family but of one or more large clans. The Claudii ("lame") was one of oldest and therefore largest groups in Rome. Whoever was recognized as their leader obviously wielded considerable clout. More recent Roman rubrics, such as the Metellii, seem to derive from a more recent ancestor, such as Ptolemy Philometer, the Hasmonean Mattathias. Sulla became head of the Cornelius clan.
All of these leading families intermarried, so actual clan affiliation would have been somewhat arbitrary. Since the time of Alexander the Great, the royal family had proliferated into many branches. This must be at least partly responsible for the number of important Roman titular heads of families that competed so vigorously with one another. Granted, not all branches of the royal family realized the importance of a Roman identity. And some, like that of Pompey, entered the Roman arms race rather late, but nonetheless were able to win election to high offices and use Roman resources to enhance their non-Roman royal status.
At the time of Julius Caesar the Claudians were rivaled in power only by the Metellus. Although the title Julius/Iulus was an old and venerated line, it was apparently also connected to the even larger Fabian clan. It seems reasonable that a single great Roman leader might collect a series of titles. Augustus, for example, became the "Gaius Julius Caesar". Prior to that he was the "Gaius Octavius" and probably also the "Quintus Lutatius Catalus".
The same dynamics were obviously at play in the Hellenistic world as in earlier pharaonic times. A succession of kings, such as the twelve successors of Inyotef/Sargon became associated with a group of mighty tribes, the 12 so-called tribes of Israel. Future kings placed themselves and their sons as heads over those (and other) tribes scattered about the Empire. The kings that collected the most titles won the game.
© Charles N. Pope, US Library of Congress. All rights reserved.