Hanno of Gaza and Odysseus of Ithaca
In Response To: Hanno and Sargon! ()

In Chart 36 I make Hanno a possible (perhaps probable) association with Prince Amenhotep, the later pharaoh Tanuatamon. Almost certainly Hanno corresponds to the Egyptian name Amen (as in the names Amenemhet and Amenhotep), and Hebrew Hanan. However, there is at least one other prominent prince of this time with a related name, Amenemnisu son of Ramses-Tefnakhte. He was later killed by Piye/Sargon, and perhaps because he had earlier been captured by Piye/Sargon and broken an oath of obedience. Second offences could lead to the "death penalty".

While Hori/Kashta was still alive Prince Amenhotep would have had nearly equal status to Hori's other son Piye. Amenhotep was probably the biological son of Hori by his daughter Qalhata/Amenirdis, but considered the "eldest son" of the usurper and Great King Shabaka/Takelot III/Tiglath-pileser III. The mother of Piye was a daughter of Crown Prince Khaemwaset.

Amenhotep seems to have also been known by the regional variants of It-amar/It-amra and Ihtesamun.

Oscar Calle Mesa recently wrote to me and asked who I thought Odysseus/Ulysses might be in Egyptian circles. Here was my reply:

"Odysseus was the son of Laertes (ant) son of Arceisius (variant of Acrisius/Jacob?). Within this context, Odysseus would be a transliteration of Ihtes-amun, which along with the variant It-amar/It-amra may have been an alias of Amenhotep, a.k.a., Tandamane/Tanuatamon (See Chart 26). I think this Amenhotep was the son of Hori/Kashta by his own daughter Qalhata/Amenirdis, but considered an eldest son of Takelot/Shabaka heir to line of Judah. The ant (Heb. Nemalah) was associated with Thutmose IV/Nimlot/Judah and his true son Aye/Sheshonq, and in a broader sense the line of Judah that extended to Takelot III/Shabaka.

"Another character of the Iliad is Idomeneus (knowing one), who is mighty but peripheral. This name seems equivalent to Proetus/Proteus (Edom/Adam/Adapa), king of Egypt. Proetus and Idomeneus both seem to reflect the role of Pinedjem/Shalmaneser V as the dominant king, at least in title, who was typecast as a new Solomon/Noah. As Proetus, he rules Egypt and remains more or less neutral. As Idomeneus he supports the side of his (subordinate!) father Menelaus.

"There was a seer/prophet of Solomons time called Iddo (2 Chron. 9:29). This name may be another alias of Solomon/Obed himself as a priestly Noah/Adapa type. King Menelaus also has the alter ego of Memnon in the Iliad, which reflects the later history of Piye (Menelaus) when he went to war against his former ally Tefnakhte (Nestor) and killed one of his sons.

Alternatively, Idomeneus might represent Hori/Kashta as a Jacob/Adam figure or Amenhirkhepshef/Osorkon III/Alara as an Esau figure."

Penelope wife of Odysseus emerges as a new Helen and is aggressively courted by many suiters. After Shepenwepet I (Helen of Troy) and Amenirdis I (Clytemnestra), the next God's Wife was Shepenwepet II daughter of Piye. Following her was Amenirdis II daughter of Taharqa. The name Penelope compares better with Shepenwepet than Amenirdis, but certainly there would have been stiff competition among the various royal males to produce children through them both.

Homer names seven princes that vied for Penelope:

1) Antinous son of Eupeithes lord of Ithica
2) Eurymachus son of Polybus of Ithaca
3) Leiocritus son of Evenor of Ithaca
4) Agelaus son of Damastor of Ithaca
5) Amphimedon son of Melanus of Ithaca
6) Ctesippus son of Polytherses of Same
7) Amphinomus son of Nisus from Dulichium

We can assume that this is a "Who's Who" among royal princes of this time. Ithaca perhaps represents Nubia, but is really irrelevant. We're dealing with a single omnipresent royal family. I would think the leading candidates, not in any particular order, would be:

1) Haremakhet/Osorkon IV/Esarhaddon (Greek Orestes)
2) Nimlot/Smendes/Menkheperre/Sennacherib (Greek Aristodemus)
3) Taharqa/Psamtik/Necho/Astyges (Greek Temenos)
4) Ramses/Psusennes/Cyrus (Greek Kresphontes)
5) Mentuemhet/Masaharta/Sheshonq/Ahasuerus (Greek, Thrasymedes? son of Nestor)
6) Pinudjem/Shalmaneser V/Peftjawybast (Greek Proteus/Idomeneus)
7) Smendes II/Assurbanipal/Smerdis

So the game is to map the set of names from the Odyssey to those from historical Egypt! Sounds like something to do during the World Series game tonight. Go team!

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Mentuemhet, Mentor, and Weaver