The Hyksos Reloaded

Much thanks to Josephus' "The Life" there will no doubt continue to be persistent, misguided theorizing about the late Hyksos Period and its relation to Biblical Moses and the Exodus. We recently revisted this topic after the TV Documentary "The Exodus Decoded" aired, but there may still be confusion about the model developed on this site as it pertains to the Hyksos.

The late Hyksos king Apophis was in fact himself the leading Moses-figure of his generation. The name Apophis was a take-off on Pepi from the Old Kingdom, which has now been linked to Sargon the Great. (See previous forum discussion on this topic by searching on Pepi and Sargon.) Apophis would have therefore been typecast not as a Moses of the Auibre Hor/Hammurabi variety, but of the even earlier Pepi/Sargon variety. The exile of Hammurabi was from Egypt, to which he would return and lead an Exodus party. On the other hand, the eviction of Sargon was from Mesopotamia, where he would return but not leave again, at least apparently not in Exodus. The two Moses types are similar but somewhat inverted in geographic terms.

Like Sargon, Apophis had a separate and distinct identity, not only in Babylon, but also in Upper Egypt. Apophis was called Samsu-ditana in Babylon and Tao in Thebes. Sargon had been known as "Inyotef (A), the Ancestor" in Upper Egypt. Tao/Apophis also typecast his sons after those of Inyotef/Pepi. The "eldest son" of Sargon was called Manishtushu/Ur-Bau, a.k.a. Montuhotep in Egypt. Another son, Mannu-Dannu/Montuhotep II (probably sired by Montuhotep I by a wife of Sargon), assumed the title "Uniter of the Two Lands". He conspired with another brother Naram-Sin (Inyotef I) to kill Sargon's designated heir Rimush (Montuhotep "A"). Both were in turn vanquished by Gudea, a son of Rimush by his own mother.

Sargon's personal typecasting was as Jacob-Re. Recall that Jacob is a recurring royal role based on Re as the god who went down to Egypt in famine and gained control over the choice parts of the land. The role of Moses is another recurring role based on the later life of Re when he was convicted of murder and exiled from Egypt to Babylon, after which he returned in wrath during The Flood to punish the people and (other) gods of Egypt, but ultimately relented and "saved" a remnant.

Sargon's "eldest son" Manishtushu played the part of Reuben-Geb. The next eldest Naram-Sin was Simeon-Thoth. The third, Mannu-Dannu, was the designated Levi-Set. Rimush, the fourth, was a praised Judah-Horus the Elder. Due to his murder by brothers "Set" and "Thoth", Rimush also doubled as the family Issachar-Osiris. His son Gudea became Benjamin-Horus the Younger. (Horus the Younger was in Egyptian memory the son of both Osiris and Horus the Elder.)

By way of comparison, the eldest son of Tao/Apophis (Biblical Terah/Jesse) was Djehutymes (Abram/Eliab). He initially was saddled with the role of the disgraced Reuben-Geb, and soon lost his status as crown prince. Another son, Haran/Kish, set himself up as "Chieftain of Cush". He filled the role of the earlier Naram-Sin, that is, Simeon-Thoth. The name of yet another son, Apophis II, marked him as the Judah-Horus the Elder of the clan. However, he committed an "inappropriate" political assassination (Nahor/Obed the step-father of Tao/Apophis I) and was thereafter relegated to the role of Levi-Set.

Consequently a new "Judah" was designated, the future pharaoh Thutmose I (Abimelech/David the Elder). At the same time a "Benjamin" was elected, pharaoh Kamose (Iscah/Saul son of Haran/Kish). However, he too lost favor with Tao/Apophis and was removed as king. Subsequently he was thought of as the large and impetuous Reuben-Geb. The stately and reserved Djehutymes (Abram/Eliab) was relieved of that particular role and re-cast as a living Issachar-Osiris. After this, the son of Thutmose I, namely Thutmose III (Isaac/David the Younger), was declared the new Benjamin-Horus the Younger. Although the biological son of Thutmose I, this prince was considered the legal heir of Djehutymes, even as Horus the Younger was considered the successor of Osiris.

Thutmose II was not a descendant of Tao/Apophis but of a rival prince. Earlier, Sargon was sentenced to death by his overlord ("father") and then driven out by a rival named Lugalzaggesi. Tao/Apophis also went on the run from Mesopotamia and made his stand in Egypt. A former subordinate ("son") of his, Adad-nirari (Nahor II) the true son of Arik-den-ilu (Arioch), was first elevated over him. He was later attacked by a coalition of kings (Genesis 14) which included Arik-den-ilu, but his own sons miraculously triumphed over them.

In the time of Hammurabi Egypt was devastated by a Flood that resulted in a mass Exodus of the population as well as the relocation of the royal court to Mesopotamia. The Hyksos ("foreign rule") Period ensued in Egypt. Following the Hyksos Period, high civilization returned to Egypt and Babylon was relatively quiet. We have been able to establish that the House of Apophis was not actually expelled from Egypt, but became the founders of a "new kingdom", if you will. In other words, they shed their foreign/Asiatic Hyksos disguises and once more went "native" in Egypt. This had also been the case in the time of Sargon, whose Babylonian successors founded the Middle Kingdom in Egypt.

Whew! There is still a lot of difficult names to keep track of, but recognizing the "sacred pattern" greatly simplifies and clarifies the history. These people were the "chosen" Duds of the ancient world. Their ways were not our ways, but we can begin to understand what made them tick. They were absolute sticklers for tradition.

As another example of this, the prominence of the god Set-Montu-Baal in the late Hyksos/early New Kingdom reflects a similar trend in the Age of Sargon.

The time of Sargon was one of social upheaval if not geological. There may have been some kind of catastrophe in the time of Tao/Apophis, such as an eruption of Thera or other "Tempest". If not, tradition may have dictated manufacturing one. Regardless, there was, as in the time of Sargon, untold slaughter, not only from the forces of nature but from kingly succession battles and deliberate culling of the population.

It is doubtful that Tao/Apophis personally led what we would consider a traditional Exodus, probably because this was not expected from one looking to play Moses as Sargon had (rather than Hammurabi). Those who left Egypt at the end of the Hyksos and resettled in Israel or Greece could have been assisted by a "Dan" or "Zebulun" among the sons of Tao/Apophis (Gk. Epaphos). Nevertheless, the New Kingdom period that followed was much more known for the increasing migration of Greek people and culture into Egypt.

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