I've taken another look at www.parthia.com as well as the discussion on Juba II at the Tyndale site (that you cited earlier):
The link between Juba II, Herod the Great, and Phraates IV is inescapable! It is corroborated by the redundant marriage with Glaphyra daughter of Archelaus of Cappadocia/Pontus, and the later marriage of the Roman Governor Felix to the "double" Drusilla. What a family affair!
I'd like to then propose a new strawman model for the overlap in these kingdoms/rulers.
Asamoneus = Arsaces (Moneaces) = Ptolemy III (Euergetes)
Simeon = Tiradates = Lysimachus (bro. of Ptolemy III)
John = Arsaces II (Artabanus) = Ptolemy V (Epiphanes)
Mattathias = Mithradates = Ptolemy VI (Philometer)
Simon (Matthes/Thassi) = Phraates II = Ptolemy VII (Neos Philopater)
John Hyrcanus = Artabanus II = (son of Ptolemy VII)
Alexander Janneus = Mithradates II = Ptolemy X
The Ptolemaic period is one of a succession of brother rivalries. The line of Ptolemy VI (Mithradates) was eclipsed by that of his younger brother Ptolemy VIII (Euergetes II). Consistent with this, the rule in Jerusalem passed from John Hyrcanus to Alexander Janneus/Jonathan, who corresponds to Ptolemy X (Alexander) son of Ptolemy VIII.
Ptolemy X in turn struggled with his own older brother Ptolemy IX (Lathyrus). This is reflected by the Hasmonean history in which Janneus Alexander deceitfully offered to help Lathyrus overthrow Cleopatra III (their mother), who was effectively ruling Egypt by herself. The plan backfired. Cleopatra and her "Jewish generals" forced Lathyrus back into exile and Alexander ended up begging her for mercy, which she granted him as her favorite.
Ptolemy X (Alexander) died before Ptolemy IX (Lathyrus), therefore the succession ultimately went to Lathyrus. When he died, the throne was willed to his daughter Berenice, who paired with Ptolemy XI, probably a son of Ptolemy X. They quickly engaged in mutual self-destruction leaving the throne to two sons of Ptolemy IX by a minor wife or mistress. The elder son became Ptolemy XII, a.k.a., Neos Dionysos/Auletes (Aretes III?). The younger was made king in Cyprus and is referred to as Ptolemy of Cyprus.
Ptolemy XII was unpopular in Egypt and forced to go in exile to Rome. His daughter Berenie IV was left as Queen. She first took a Seleucid prince, but murdered him in favor of a new husband, Archelaus of the royal court of Pontus where her father had earlier taken refuge. After about three years, her father returned with Roman backing and reclaimed the throne. Archelaus was killed. Berenice was first taken captive and later killed.
When Ptolemy XII died, the throne was left to another daughter, the famous Cleopatra VII. Her elder brother made a play for the throne, but was killed in a stand-off with Julius Caesar. He might have prevailed if it had not been for the support of Antipater (father of Herod the Great). The family of Antipater would be rewarded handsomely for this. Initially, Antipater became the leading minister in the court of Aristobulus and Hyrcanus II, the sons of Alexander X who were still ruling over Israel. Eventually, Antipater gained that dominion outright. It stands to reason that Antipater was a son of either Ptolemy XII or his brother Ptolemy of Cyprus.
After Julius Caesar was assassinated, the Roman empire was divided again and Mithradates of Pontus led a successful rebellion. It was at this time that Herod the Great stepped forward to make his own deal with Rome. The timing could not have been better for him.
© Charles N. Pope, US Library of Congress. All rights reserved.