I have made an exciting new discovery concerning the formal names of James of Peter. The key is found in a passage from Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book 16, Chapter 8, Section 3:
According to this passage, shortly before the execution of his heirs Alexander and Aristobulus, Herod the Great also expelled two other prominent princes, namely Andromachus and Gamellus, because they were close companions and potential supporters of Alexander and Aristobulus. It can be deduced that Josephus viewed (or invented) this event as the precedent for the later disgrace of four leading Heroidan Apostles.
The heir of the line of Aristobulus son of Herod the Great was Aristobulus III (Jesus). Heir of the line of Alexander son of Herod the Great was Tigranes II (Simon). Their close "companions" were James and Peter. By association, James was known by the more formal Greco-Roman name of Andromachus/Andronicus (a.k.a. Andrew). Like many other princes, he likely had a double Greco-Roman name, specifically, Stephen Andronicus. Similarly, the historical identity of Peter would have been Gamellus (or a close variant). His double name Simon Peter would have derived from a double Greco-Roman name such as Alexander Gamellus or Lysimachus/Lysanus Gamellus. HIs nickname Peter (comparable to the Greco-Roman Petronius/Patrokles) is a word play on the Latin gemma, "jewel, stone".
© Charles N. Pope, US Library of Congress. All rights reserved.