New Charts for an Old Kingdom

Three new charts have been posted based on our recent discussions of Japheth.

Chart 14a is a refinement of the previous Chart 14. Chart 14b is a more radical solution (and the one I now prefer). It involves the association of Pharaoh Pepi with Sargon the Great.

Chart 14c is all about typecasting. It shows how New Kingdom pharaohs adopted Old Kingdom identities. It is a very busy chart. You will need to print it out on a color printer and stare at it for awhile before it sinks in. Understanding the use of plus (+) signs in the chart is very important. As shown in the on-line book, a number of New Kingdom princes were murdered and their roles were reasigned. The plus signs show how one prince was replaced by another in a particular role.

Another interesting evolution in typecasting occurred in the 19th Dynasty. As discussed in the book, Seti (Joash) wanted very badly to take the role of Joshua (and even asked the dying Elisha to designate him as successor in that role). By the time Seti took the throne he was no longer youthful and decided to share the role of Joshua with his son and designated successor Ramses II. This complicated the traditional sequence of roles for the remainder of the 19th Dynasty. Ramses II would normally have been cast as a pure Jacob, which follows the role of Joshua. (Salitis was followed by Yakhub-hor in the Hyksos Period. Thutmose III, also a type of Joshua, was followed by Amenhotep II, the 18th Dynasty Jacob.)

Ramses II was instead something of a half-Joshua and half-Jacob. He split the role of Joshua with his father. But he also split the role of Jacob with his own son Hori. Hori in turn was a half-Jacob and half-Joseph. (Joseph is the next role in the sequence.) The Libyan name of Hori was Iuput (II), which we have seen was associated with the Joseph typecasting. The Nubian name of Hori was Kashta (literally, "The Kushite", Kush/Put being a Joseph type name). His leading son and successor was Piye who became a half-Joseph and half-Moses. Piye then shared the role of Moses with one of his own sons Taharqa!

It seems that by Herodian times a particular role such as "the Joseph" could be passed down from father to son to grandson and so forth.

To tie up one other loose end, we need to talk about the first Libyan pharaoh named Iuput. He was the son of pharaoh Pedubastet. As shown in the on-line book, Pedubastet (a.k.a. Egyptian Nakhtmin) assumed a strong Jacob typecasting.

In his struggle to overthrow Sheshonq III (Libyan Seti), he drew inspiration from the great "grabbers" of former dynasties. From the Old Kingdom he chose Khufu, who usurped the kingdom from Narmer. (Seti considered himself a type of Narmer and his father Ramses modelled himself after Horus Aha/Menes. Horemheb had chosen Djoser.)

From the Middle Kingdom, Pedubastet selected the leading Jacob of the 12th Dynasty, Senusret II, who usurped the kingdom from both Amenemhet II and Sekhemkare. (These were the Middle Kingdom role models of Ramses and Horemheb.)

Considering all of this, it is not at all surprising that Pedubastet established his son and designated successor as a Joseph figure. Nevertheless, it was not to last. Shortly after the death of the first Ramses, Pedubastet was defeated in battle and killed by Sheshonq III/Seti. Seti was therefore able to take the role of Jacob away from Pedubastet and give it to his own son Ramses II.

(See Chapter 31 of the on-line book for the full discussion. This is one of the best and clearest examples of how crucial role playing was in the ancient world and how critical it was for a king to cultivate a successful royal personna based on typecasting.)