Osiris, Varuna, and Achaemenes
In Response To: Mithras and Serapis ()

We are now better able to appreciate why the name Simon/Simeon was so popular in Hasmonean times. Simon/Simeon is the Patriarchal epithet of the god Thoth/Hermes, and a critical element in the Parthian/Persian cult of Mithra, as well as the high-god Ahura Mazda.

We can also comprehend the prominence of Osiris inspired names in the Hasmonean period, such as Eleazar/Lazarus and Mattathias/Matthias. Other Hasmonean names such as Avaran/Auran, Gaddis and Thassi are evidently based on Osiris as well. Gaddis and Thassi may be plays on the god Attis, the Phoenician name for Osiris. Gaddis may further play on the name Gitti/Gittite, "one from Philistine Gath", i.e., a "Greek".

Avaran is a play on the Persian/Hindu god Varuna, who was a god associated with water and the forgiveness of sins ala Osiris. As noted in a previous post, the emphasis on Osiris in the Persian and Parthian periods seems to derive on the typecasting of founding father Achaemenes as incarnated Osiris and his priestly identity as Zoroaster.

The name Varuna first appears in the archaeological record during the Egyptian 18th Dynasty in a treaty between the Hittite king Suppililiuma and Shattiwaza of Mitanni.

In the original language of the treaty, "the Mitanni King Shattiwaza has them listing gods named 'Mitrasil,' 'Arunasil,' and 'Indar,' which are clearly the Vedic gods Mitra, Varuna, and Indra, the first two simply with '-il,' a Semitic element for 'god,' added."

Compare Arunas/Varuna with the Hasmonean forms Auran/Avaran, and also the name Aurvandil associated with the constellation of Orion.

Another web site comments:

"But this particular treaty held a special surprise: toward the end of the tablet, among the divine witnesses, there were also listed Mitra-ash, Uruwana, Indar, and the Nashatiyanu gods - the very Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and the Nasaya gods of the Hindu pantheon!
Which of the three - Hittite, Hindu, Hurrian - was then the common source? The answer was provided in the same Hittite-Mitannian treaty: none of them; for those so-called 'Aryan' gods were listed in the treaty together with their parents and grandparents, the 'Olden Gods,': the couples Anu and Antu, Enlil and his spouse Ninlil, Ea and his wife Damkina; as well as 'the divine Sin, lord of the oath . . . Nergal of Kutha . . . the warrior god Ninurta . . . the warlike Ishtar.' "

And yet another web site,

"there is a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitannis, two groups of people, and in the course of this treaty they call to witness the gods of Hittites - Mitra, Varuna, Indra, Nasatya. They are actually written as Mitrashil, Uruvanshil, Indurah, Nashatyana. But they have been used as versions of what later became Mitra, Varuna, Indra and Nasatya."

Note: The twin gods Nashatiyanu/Nasatya are also referred to as the Ashvins.

See also the following sites:

Responses To This Message

The Threshing Floor of Araunah (Osiris)