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Parthian Shots
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Tim, I realize you are "thinking out loud".

My suggestion would be to stick with the basics. That is, to assume that the various eastern royal houses were very closely related and continued to be so through intermarriage.

For example, I think it is worth revisiting the origins of the Maccabees. The epithet Hycanus is very suspicious since Hycania was a region of Old Persia, then Parthia. This suggests that the family had kingly claims in that region. It should then be worth considering whether the Maccabee uprising represented an urge for Judea to return to its own post-Exile beginnings, that is, subjection to a Persian royal house they could call their own. I would suspect that the Maccabees were descendants of an old Persian line of Darius or one closely collateral.

Question: Why would the Parthians after conquering Judea restore the kingship of the Hasmonean Antigonus?

The name Arsacid is equivalent to Achaemenid. Arsa was one of the great kings of the Achaemenid dynasty. Arsa as we learned (Part III of the on-line book) was a Persian variant of the Hebrew Ezer/Issachar. His Assyrian identity was Tiglath-pileser III and Takelot III in Egypt. Also known as the Nubian Shabaka.

(By the way, I have also never heard a convincing etymology of the epithet Hasmonean. I would suspect this is also Persian/Parthian, but perhaps it directs us to Judean roots in the opposite direction. William Theaux once suggested to me that Hasmonean might be derived from Ashmunein (Hermopolis) in Egypt. That's very speculative, but this is the kind of broad connection we have come to expect here.)

We should also expect the so-called Arab rulers of Petra to have been of old-Persian stock and therefore closely related to the Maccabees and later Herodians.

The mentor of Josephus named "Banus" looks like the short form of the Parthian name Arta-banus. There was in fact a Parthian king named Artabanus who was given refuge by the apparent Herodian (in disguise) Izates of Adiabene.

You mentioned that Mithradates was a Parthian David/Joshua. What other types (mythological or biblical) can you recognize in the Parthian royal family. Can you connect the types into a progression. Do they compare at all with typecasting of Nabatean/Petra kings? That is, were kings of Parthia also masquerading as kings of Petra under Arabian cognomens? This is what I call the basics. I would forget about the astrology for now. (Not discounting its importance, but realizing that the progressions are easier to recognize in terms of divine family relationships.)

You probably need to review the 5 on-line supplements and associated charts accessed from the bottom of the main book page. This goes over the Herodian typecasting, at least from a Biblical perspective. Most relationships are solid. However, you might find Hellenistic typecasting that I didn't pick up on.

-Charles

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Re: Parthian Shots