Herodians at Edessa & Adiabene

Tim, it's been almost two months since I posted the list of 10 topics from Eisenman's Jesus the Brother of James.

The ones you are primarily interested in are #9 & #10. So, rather than making you wait, here are my notes on these topics. The numbers are the pages in Eisenman where he has discussion. However, my ideas are mixed in with his below, so it may be a little confusing.

9) Herodian Rule in Edessa

Connection between Jerusalem, Petra, and Edessa. Implies Herodian interest/rule in Edessa 888-889
Alliance of Edessa and Petra against Antipas. This may have been a ruse to give the appearance of dissent and division to Rome (i.e., quell Roman suspicion)
This dispute may also have fulfilled a necessary precedent (for victory over Rome) and therefore had to be staged? That is, it may have somehow been a repetition of the deception/prelude before Roman Triumvir Crassus was embarrassed by an earlier king of Edessa.

Significance of the Abraham royal cult at Edessa
Abgarus and Helen “brother and sister” as Abraham and Sarah 896
Succession at Edessa (see Magi) - Monobazus also called Agbarus/Abgarus? Bazus/Bazeus ~ ~ Barus? ~ Banus? 883
Agbarus “Great King of the Peoples Beyond the Euphrates” 484

Equivalence of the names Ti-granes (a Herodian prince) and Ab-garus
Reign of Tigranes I & II parallels that of Abgarus
Abgarus meaning “Great One”, the title of Osiris and of Abraham as a type of Osiris 908
Abgarus and Edessa 862
Edessa known as Antiochia (-by-Callirhoe/ of the Osrhoeans) 863
This Antioch is where believers were first called Christians? 874, 862, 864

Importance of Edessa to early Christianity 349

Adoption by Agbarus of the sons of Helen
Jesus and James (or alternatively John and James the sons of Zebedee) as Izates/Izas (Isaac) and Monobazus (Ishmael)?
If Helen is the same as Mary/Mariamne mother of Jesus, then she had a number of sons that could have been placed into the roles of Izates and Monobazus.
Cf Monobazus and Banus. Banus an epithet of James in the works of Josephus. 673
Izates called “the only begotten son” 639
Mock circumcision of Izates 683, which is in turn satirized in Acts 920

Aristobulous III made king of Lower Armenia (which included Edessa) 938
What year? Late 50’s A.D.?
Aristobulus III and Salome called “Great Lovers of Caesar” 938
‘High regard’ of Pilate for Jesus in the Gospels 794
Monobazus successor of Izates (died c. 55-58 A.D.?) attends peace conference between Rome and Parthia in 63 A.D.

Apostle Judas/Thaddaeus/Lebbaeus and Edessa.
Name Lebbaeus related to Libya
Edessa as the original Libya/Mitanni of Mesopotamia 864

Armenia and Adiabene were in heart of former Assyria. Hundred of years earlier Assyrians kings deported peoples from Israel to Assyria. Yet these people needed to be “converted”? They were no longer considered “Jewish”, or perhaps never were?

Edessa as the “Arabia” where Paul spent three years?

Helen’s “adultery” 910
Corresponds to the five husbands of the “Woman at the Well”, that is the royal husbands of Mary/Mariamne.
- Antipater son of Herod the Great
- Herod of Chalcis
- Archelaus
- Antipas
- Tigranes/Abgarus (His Hebrew name was either “Simon the Zealot” or alternatively, “Simon Magus”. I'm still debating this. Magus/Magi alludes to Edessa/Adiabene/Parthia, but the Zealot epithet is appropriate also since Edessa led the charge against Rome.)

10) Herodian Leadership in the Jewish Revolt

Jerusalem relief effort led by Helen 871, 902, 904
Includes Paul, Phillip, and Barnabus, even Izates (transformed into a eunuch). 921, 943
Wealth of Helen and her tomb in Jerusalem rivaling that of Herodians 902, 913
Revolt began in Edessa where resistance against Rome had previously been successful.
Jewish War of Independence led by the kinsmen of Helen of Adiabene and Edessa 868, 884-885
Niger (Simon of Cyrene?)
Silas the Babylonian (Silas the closest partner of Paul)
Monobazus brother and successor of Izates (one of the sons of Helen/Mariamne?)
(Aristobulus III, king of Armenia, thought to have died c. 63 A.D., that is, before the Revolt)
Kenedaeos (Canaanite/Zealot?)
Death of Izates (circa 55 A.D.) before the Revolt 886, 904

Herodian fight for freedom patterned after the Hasmonian 353-371
All-volunteer army 435-439
However, leaders (like Josephus) are conscripted!

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