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Shabaka, Champion of Ptah & Amun
In Response To: shabaka a joseph? ()

Shabaka was primarily an Osiris (Issachar) type with the secondary typing of Horus the Elder (Judah). From the Old Kingdom onward the role of an Osiris figure was to reinstate the prominence of Ptah (later melded with Amun). This seems to have derived from the reign of Menkhaure who reopened the temple of Ptah in defiance of Khufu who previously closed it.

We find this theme again in the Amarna period when Smenkhkare reopened the temple of Amun after Akhenaten had shut it down. Smenkhare (the prophet Elijah) had also persecuted and killed priests of Set (Baal). (Set was the murderer of Osiris.)

Herodotus relates that Sabacos (Shabaka) had a dream in which a man stood over him and told him to cut all of the priests of Egypt in half. This dream, although garbled in Herodotus, would reflect Shabaka's expected attack on certain (perhaps half not all) priests, specifically the priests of Set/Baal. However, Sabacos refused to act on this dream. Sabacos was venerated in Greek tradition, and consistent with this Herodotus also placed him in favorable light. Sabacos appears as a righteous king who refuses to kill priests, abolishes the death penalty, and puts wrongdoers to work on something of benefit to the people, a dyke to protect cities of the Delta from flood water.

There are in fact high Nile flood readings known from the reign of Shabaka. Very high (and low) Nile floods were bad omens for an Osiris figure. They signaled the murder of the Osiris, the end of the present dynasty, and an Exodus of the damned. So, it is not surprising if the reformer Shabaka tried to counteract that tradition also.

Herodotus does not know of Sabacos' death after a reign of only 16 years. He records that the good king voluntarily abdicated and retired from Egypt after ruling for 50 years as Ethiopian oracles had once divined. Perhaps there had been an Osiris figure, especially an Ethiopian one, who managed to rule for 50 years, and that became the standard Shabaka hoped for. But it was not to be.

To answer your other question, there was a Solomon figure around the time of Shabaka. His name was Pi-Nedjem, "House of Peace". In the Bible he is variously called Shallum and Meshullam. The Moses figure of this time was initially Taharqa. He also was careful to record high Nile levels. He believed his fortunes would rise along with them. Taharqa "killed an Egyptian" (namely the Osiris Shabaka), and like the Moses of the Talmud sought refuge in Ethiopia. He later was exonerated and returned triumphantly to Egypt.

In each time period you can find the major types. The history was continually repeated and grew in complexity and subtlety with each turn. All we have to do is follow the pattern down through each dynasty.