The parents of Osiris are still somewhat of a mystery. Osiris is generally believed to be the son of Geb, and that may have been the case. Certainly he was a son or grandson of Shu and considered to be a legitimate heir of that line. In later tradition, Osiris was made out to be a son of Ra (as were all the gods). This is a refinement of the discussion in Chapter 3 and is based on the additional research done for the tutorials.
Perhaps Set (Biblical Seth and Tubal-Cain) had other epithets. For example, Ra was probably also called Khufu or Khnum-Khuf. This name Khufu was later adopted by a pharaoh of the early dynastic period, but this does not mean that Ra had not existed. The same can be said for Set. Narmer may have emulated Set (as he did other gods such as Horus and Geb), but this does not mean that he was the original Set. The fact that Narmer and many kings of the dynastic period patterned themselves after Set only helps confirm the historicity of that original Set that lived before the dynastic period.
Most of the gods and goddesses were typecast after far earlier deities. For example, the god Ptah was playing an establised role that existed from time immemorial. Osiris also was a very old type. However, other gods such Ra and Set may be something of an "innovation", that is, perhaps unique to the time shortly before the dynastic period began.
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