This is an updated version of a previous post.
Seven Original City and Their Gods
1) Eridu - Enki and/or Adapa
2) Erech/Uruk (E-Anna) - An and/or Innana
3) Larsa & Nippur/Nibru - Enlil and/or Utu
4) Badtibiru & Ur - Nannar/Sin/Nugig
5) Larak & Lagash/Girsu - Pabilsag/Ninurta
6) Sippar - Utu-Shamash
7) Shuruppak - (An)Sud or Zius-udra/Adapa or Ubar-tutu/Utu
There is indication that there was more than one Eridu, and that the traditional site of Erech/Uruk was based on an earlier Eridu, that is, it was a "New-Eridu" if you will. The original Eridu seems to have been located in the Absu/Abyss/Underworld, that is, the continent of South America.
In fact, there seems to be an "Eridu/Erech" in every major region of the Near East. For example, the city of On (An/Anna) in Egypt is comparable to the E-Anna of Erech. The world's oldest continuously occupied city of Jericho is Y-erech-ow in Hebrew, the Eridu of Canaan. The ancient cities of Urartu (sp?) and Aratta are other examples.
See these web sites:
" 'Enoch,' the city Cain built in the pre-flood period corresponds with 'Eanna(k).' " [E-anna = Erech/Uruk] "Eridu is identified as the home of Adapa. However, he is also called 'the Erechian.' "
"The name of the very first city is here given as 'N.U.N-ki', the cuneiform symbol code for the city 'Eridu'."
Seven Who Decree Fate
1)An-Anu 2)Enki-Ea 3)Enlil-Ellil 4)Inanna-Ishtar 5)Nannar-Sin 6)Ninhursag 7)Utu-Shamash
It is not clear which gods correspond to which sages. Possible choices follow:
1) Uan (u: many meanings; an: "high, heaven")
b) Ea/Enki, Oannes?
2) Uanduga (duga: "establish foundation"; di: "judgment"; di-ku: "decisions, judgments"; du/dug: "gladness"; dug-gur: "sit down, rest", du: "afar" (according to Sitchin))
c) Ea/Enki/Nudimmud (of Eridu)
3) Enmeduga (me: "office, function"; me-du-(du-)ga: "the good me's/functions")
b) Marduk, namesake of Enmerkar
c) Nannar/Sin/Suen/Enzu/Nugig (of Badtibira)
4) Enmegalama (galama: "great/exalted one")
c) Ninhursag, Ningal, Gula?
5) Enmebuluga (bulug: "sprout, grow big")
a) Nintu/Ninhursag, Belit?, Bau?, Gula?
c) Marduk, Enbilulu/Asalluhi?
d) Ninurta, Pabilsag (of Larak)
a) Innana, Anunitu
b) Ninlil, Lilith? (Nin = "Queen", Enlil = Nun-amnir, Enlil-da = "Enlil-ship"?)
c) Ninurta (Enlil-da = "protector of Enlil"?)
d) Utu-Shamash (of Sippar)
a) Utu-Shamash, Nabu
b) Sud/Ansud the Goddess or Zin-suddu/Ziu-suddu/Ziusudra/Adapa (of Shuruppak)
Above definitions from the Sumerian Lexicon, except where noted.
Seven Primordial Kings
It is just as difficult to associate the names in the Sumerian King List with the more recognizable Sumerian & Akkadian gods. Possible choices follow:
1) Alulim (of Eridu/Habur)
(a-lum: "sheep(-like)"; alim: "wild ram/bull, powerful"; lu: "man, graze, pasture" - compare lu-hu-um, "clay, mud" and (English) human; a (Akkadian) "water"
Alulim: "sheep of the glittering waters" (Z. Sitchin, 12th Planet, p 293))
a) Anu ("the bull")
b) Ea/Enki ("the goat-fish", "the water-man")
c) Adapa, Apkallu/Abgal ("the human offspring", "the sage/great father")
d) Adam ("from clay/ground")
2) Alalgar/Alalmar (of Eridu/Habur)
(alal: "lift water, conduit/canal"; allal: "net, crab"); gar: ?; mar (Latin) "sea"; mr (Egyptian) "pyramid")
a) Enlil, "the net, the crab" See 12th Planet, p 297
b) Adapa, A-lal-gar, "he who is raintime brought rest." (Sitchin, 12th Planet, p 294)
3) Enmenluanna (of Badtibira)
(men: "crown/tiara, office/function, partner/companion/second/double, woman"; lu: "man, graze, pasture"; compare luna (Latin), "light, moon")
b) Nintu/Ninhursag or Lahamu/Innana/Ishtar/Isis
4) Enmengalanna (of Badtibira) (gal: "great, large, overwhelm")
5) Dumuzi-Sib (of Badtibira)
(dumu: "child"; zi: "legitimate, true, good")
a) Dumuzi, the Shepherd
6) Ensipazianna/Sib-zianna (of Larak)
(sipa: "fill up the canals (with water)"; si: "upright, straight, inundate, plowland, horn, light"; pa: "bud, sprout, irrigation ditch" pa-tar: "cut off branches/twigs"; pa-usan: "a shepherd"); compare munsub "shepherd" and sipa (Akkadian) "shepherd"; zi: "righteous, good, legitimate, faithful, true"; zi: breath (of life); throat; soul; zi (verb); destroy, annihilate; zi: bitter, bile, stench.)
a) Ninhursag (See discussion of Planets below)
7) Enmeduranna/Enmenduranki (of Sippar)
("Lord of the Decrees Abiding in Heaven (and Earth)"),
(corrupted to Ebhed-oranki), associated with Nippur (Nibru-Ki), city of Enlil.)
a) Nannar/Sin and/or Utu-Shamash
b) Adapa, the one "taken up to heaven from earth", the Obed, "tiller, binder"
Variants of the Sumerian King List between one and three additional kings for a total of ten.
8) Ubartutu/Uburratu/Uburratum/Arad-Gin/Su-kur-lam (of Shuruppak)
(Arad means "servant, slave.")
9) Kichunna/Kidunnu-sakinin (of Larsa)
(ki: "place, earth, ground"; DUN-a: "dependent (on), subordinate"; di, "judge")
a) Enki/En-ki-du-nu, "Enki digs deep," (12th Planet, p 294), that is, in the earth and in his intellect. Sa-kinin, "son of Cain"? Despite his talents, Enki was subordinate to Enlil.
10) Alimma/...UK?...KU? (of Ellasar or Babylon?)
a) Probably a redundant entry as is Kidunnu above to glorify the city in which the particular version of the King List was written.
There is repetition in the Sumerian King List after the Flood. For example, Etana and Balih of Kish corresponds to Elulu and Balulu of Ur. We see a similar tendency to list important kings more than once before the Flood in order to preserve their separate identities in different cities.
Definitions from the Sumerian Lexicon, except where noted.
Note that the first line of Adam in Genesis includes seven Patriarchs before the Flood, eight if you include Noah. The second line of Adam includes nine Patriarchs before the Flood, ten if you include Noah.
See the derivation of apkalla "sage" from abgal "great father"
See the definition of Zarpanitum, an epithet of the Mother Goddess, as:
"She who will bring forth the male seed."
See the definition of Adam as "a-meaning arm or side, and dam meaning spouse."
For example, as in the name "Dam-kina, "wife-favored" of Enki"
This definition suggests that "God" may have "created" a new wife for Adam through his existing wife. Plenty of room to speculate on this one!
See the excellent discussion of Adam & Eve and the Sumerian King List in the on-line book "Seed of the Woman":
This site compares the Greek Oannes with the Roman god Janus, and with the Sanskrit god Idas-pati, "the master of water." Also compare the god Dyaus-Pitar, "shining father" with Ea/Enki-Ptah.
The following site has excellent astronomical insights into the Sumerian King List(s) and how exaggerated life spans may have been mistakenly assumed. It appears that the list tries to incorporate a length of time corresponding to 120 shars (the 120 years left to mankind in the Book of Genesis). It also includes numbers related to precession and a complete "Great Year."
Here are some other sites that discuss the Sumerian King List(s).
The Seven (and more) Planetary Gods
(adapted from Z. Sitchin, "The 12th Planet", all definitions by Sitchin)
1) Mercury (Mummu) = Nabu/Thoth/Utu-Shamash
2) Venus (Lahamu) = Ishtar/Inanna/Isis
3) Earth (Originally Tiamat) = Enlil/Shu, "supreme", Shu-gi, "right resting place of Shu, land at the conclusion of Shu," "House of Resting," "house of building life on Earth,"
Shibu, "the seventh" (from the outer solar system), Shu-ki (ki = "dry ground/earth"), Shu-nu, "in the supreme part rest."
4) Moon = Nannar/Sin (Originally Kin-gu), "great emissary", Dug-ga-e, "pot of lead." Was the god Sin sacrificed/made a substitute for Enlil-Kingu?
5) Mars (Lahmu) = Seth and/or Horus (Elder and/or Younger), "The Traveler's Ship," Utu-ka-gab-a "light established at the gate of the waters," Shelibbi, "one near the center of the solar system," Leviathan/Libbu. (Also associated with Nergal and Nabu by Sitchin.)
X) Planet X = Marduk-Re/Asalluhi, Nibiru "Planet of Crossing", A-sar/A-sar-u/U-lu-du "watery king"/"lofty, bright watery king"/"whose deep is plentiful", Nam-til-la-ku "the god who maintains life," winged globe, flying disc, winged sun disc, Phayton/Phaethon, "chariot", shining.
6) Jupiter (Kishar) = Ninhursag, Sag-me-gar, Sib-zi-anna, "true guide in the heavens," Barbaru, "bright one," "The Roadway (becomes clear)," "where the shepherd's word appears."
7) Saturn (Anshar) = Ninurta/Geb/Satran, Tar-gallu "the great destroyer," Kar-si-di, "weapon of righteousness," Si-mutu "he who for justice kills," a place of celestial storms, "mighty hunter."
8) Uranus (Anu) = Anu, En-ti-mash-sig, "planet of bright greenish life," Kakkab Shanamma, "planet which is the double (of Neptune)."
9) Neptune (Ea) = Enki/Nudimmud, "where the field separates," Hum-ba,
10) Pluto (Gaga) = Adapa?, the last planet/god formed, Shu-pa, "supervisor/guardian of the Shu/Earth," Us-mi, "one who shows the way," "house of bright waters."
There doesn't seem to be only one correct formulation of the sages, kings, cities, planet-gods, etc. It probably changed somewhat over time and from place to place.
There was a series of repetitions that tended to obscure the original events and relationships. For example, in a Biblical sense, the second line of Adam is a repetition (later in time) than the first line of Adam. The first line of Adam is itself a repetition of an even earlier group of "god-kings," conceivably the "first ones." This tradition of assuming the identities of earlier ancestors (by way of inheritance or usurpation) caused confusion in the myths and aggrandizement in the memories of later kings.
© Charles N. Pope, US Library of Congress. All rights reserved.