Re: Comprehensive Biblical Timeline

The following astronomical events are used for "absolute dating" in support of the original Biblical timeline...

KTU 1.78 Poorly dated by Rohl to 1012BCE, this belongs to 1375BCE as a loosely dated reference to year 12 of Akhenaton, allowing us to date his 1st year, the year of the Exodus, to 1386BCE. Akhenaton converted to "monotheism" dismissing all ancient Egyptian gods after experiencing the ten plagues and the death of his father the year of the Exodus. The astro references in this text are Egyptian and not Babylonian as Rohl claims and simply gives the time, day and month of the eclipse (hour six, day of new moon, Iyyaru), and a reference to the eclipse in progress during sunrise in Taurus. "Reshep" in the ancient Egyptian pantheon was the "Bull of Heaven", a reference to Taurus. The dating of the eclipse in 1375BCE confirms the zodiac position was in Taurus to confirm this dating. 1375BCE is also the "conventional" dating of this eclipse as well as the general conventional dating for the time of Akhenaton, so this adjustment is not a major one.

Assyrian Eponym Solar Eclipse -- The option of dating this event to 709BCE is taken, reducing the chronology based on this event by 54 years, namely the battle of Karkar in 853BCE now 799BCE, and the invasion of Shishak dated to 925BCE now dated to 871BCE, the 5th of Rehoboam but also the 39th year of Solomon. Solomon and Rehoboam shared a 6-year co-rulership, meaning that Shishak invaded Palestine before Jeroboam became king of the northern tribes. This explains why a "friend" of Shishak conquered positions primarily in the northern kingdom, that is, it would help wrest that area from under the control of Judean King Rehoboam (and Solomon) who were still ruling at the time and opposed to Jeroboam. Jeroboam returned to Israel the next year after Solomon died but began his official "rule" at the time he was announced as king the same as Rehoboam, thus the rulerships of Rehoboam and Jeroboam, begun when the coat was torn and each given respective tribes begins the Biblical rule for these kings.

Strm. Kambyses 400 -- This text, usually dated to year 7 of Kambyses in 523BCE is a "counter-conspiracy" text that hides a double-dating reference to year 541BCE to point to the original 7th year of Nebuchadnezzar that year using astronomic and historical coincidence between the two events (i.e. original year 7 of Nebuchadnezzar in 541BCE and year 7 of Kambyses in 523BCE, in an 18-year eclipse pattern where similar eclipses occur, except for a few hours. The 2-hour difference distinguishes 541BCE from 523BCE, the text matches 541BCE not 523BCE in this case, establishing the revisionism and encryption.)

VAT4956 -- Another "double-dated" text with double dating for year 37 of Nebuchadnezzar to both 568BCE and 511BCE using similar astronomical observations of lunar positions varying by one day between the two dates. This encryption takes advantage of the lunisolar pattern in astronomy where every 19 years, a similar luni-solar pattern repeats itself.

NABON 18 -- This is an eclipse reference dated to year 2 of Nabonidus where the moon sets while eclipsed. A parallel eclipse occurs in month sixth of both the revised and original chronology which is why it survives, but the original eclipse fits better the circumstances provided since the 554BCE eclipse (revised year 2) was only partial but the context was a total eclipse setting during total phase, which fits the 479BCE event, dating year 2 to 479BCE which affords dating Cyrus' rule beginning in Persia in his 6th year, 475BCE, and the 1st of Cyrus in Babylon after a 6-year rule by Darius the Mede to 455BCE, a coordinated Jubilee year.

Herodotus' THALES eclipse of the Median-Lydian Peace Agreement -- Herodotus plays double-historical games with this event as well, providing statistical information for this eclipse that has been dismissed as possible in 585BCE by expert O. Neugebaur who establishes the expertise for predicting location and times of solar eclipses was not available at this time, with rare exception. However, ancient Babylonian records could allow for the prediction of an eclipse in early 478BCE. It was established that Thales did study astronomy with the Babylonians so might have been aware of this eclipse that the Babylonians were expecting and thus was able to predict this eclipse. This is a very rare event. Further, the 585BCE eclipse did not occur in "Ionia" , the location Thales claimed it would occur, which it did in 478BCE. Herodotus confirms this was a cryptic reference to the 478BCE eclipse by claiming that "Labynetus" (Nabonidus) was the king of Babylon at the time who mediated the peace agreement between the Lydians and Medes. Obviously Nabonidus was not ruling in 585BCE, but it was his second year in 479/478BCE before he left the throne in charge of his son, Belshazzer. Thus this eclipse event, when correctly dated, can be applied to the reign of Darius beginning 479BCE, confirmed by the above Nabon 18 reference, making it the second Naobnidus eclipse reference agreeing with the corrected Biblical timeline.

Peloponnesian War Eclipse of Pericles -- This is a famous eclipse event noted in Plutarch and Xenophon and Thucydides of a major eclipse event during the first year of the Peloponnesian War. However this event is not astronomically well matched to 531BCE but better matched to 402BCE which dates the beginning of the war that year. Two references in Thucydides to Persian chronology allow the dating of the death of Darius in 424BCE and the 1st of Cyrus in 455BCE based upon the Biblical reference of the death of Darius in his 6th year, 21 years after the temple began rebuilding in the 1st of Cyrus. The eclipse accuracy in 431BCE has already been dismissed by experts as not matching the statistical reference for a total eclipse at Athens, it was only partial in Athens in 431BCE. The 402BCE eclipse was total, tracking directly over Athens and creating the context of this historical event.

Herod's Eclipse -- This eclipse usually dated to 4BCE is totally in error per Josephus. This eclipse must occur within a few days of his death. He died on Shebat 2. The 4BCE eclipse usually cited occurs AFTER his death. Instead this eclipse matches one on Tebet 14 3 days after the Fast of the 10th of Tebet with Herod dying just 18 days later on Shebat 2, 1 AD. This corresponds with the Biblical chronology for Jesus being born in 2 BCE and being between 1 and 2 years of age at the time Herod attempted to kill him.


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Astrocomical Dating