The latest comprehensive research confirms why the Bible and secular dating don't always match. It's simply because of the political climate during the Greco-Persian period afforded revisions by the Persians who also influenced Greek history to make revisions. It centers on the successful propaganda to claim that Xerxes was succeeded by Artaxerxes, his son, when in fact, they were the same king. This was afforded because of the Persian custom of kings adopting a new name when they became king. Ezra 6:14,15 establishes that Darius I died in his sixth year followed by "Artaxerxes"...this is where the research began and resulted in the comprehensively coordinated Biblical timeline below which is now confirmed by several astronomical texts. Here's the timeline that is coordinated with a "covenant week" for the Jews spanning from the time of the covenant in Egypt near the Exodus down through the ages. The covenant week which is seven days of 70 weeks associated major Jewish events with "jubilees" allowing for specific dating of certain events. The 3430-year period spands from 1435BCE to its end recently in 1996AD. Here is the "corrected" true historical timeline for reference before two revisions during the Greco-Persian period occurred beginning in Egypt.
1435 BCE 30th year of Moses, begins 3430-year covenant week
1386 BCE Date of Exodus, 1st Jubilee of week, 1st of Akhenaton
906 BCE 4th of Solomon, 480 years after Exodus.
871 BCE Invasion by Shishak, 5th of Rehoboam, 39th of Solomon
870 BCE End of Solomon's reign after 6-year co-rule with Rehbo.
799 BCE 6th of Shalmaneser III, 20th of Ahab, 3rd of Jehoram
791 BCE 14th of Shal-III, end of rule by Jehorams.
787 BCE 18th of Shal-III, 4th of Jehu
653 BCE 14th of Hezekiah, jubilee year
547 BCE 1st of Nebuchadnezzar II
541 BCE 7th of Neb-2 (proven by SK400 astrotext)
529 BCE 19th of Neb-2, fall of Jerusalem
525 BCE 23rd of Neb-2, last deportation, begin "70 years" exile
511 BCE 37th of Neb-2, (proven by VAT4956 astrotext)
479 BCE 2nd of Nabonidus (proven by Nabon 18 and Thales eclipse)
475 BCE 1st of Cyrus in Persia, 6th of Nabonidus
462 BCE 19th of Nabonidus, fall of Babylon
461 BCE 1st of "Darius the Mede" who rules 6 years before Cyrus
455 BCE 1st of Cyrus, 70 yrs after last deportation, Jews return
455 BCE Jubilee year, begins 69eeks to Messiah (29CE)
447 BCE 1st of Cambyses
439 BCE 1st of Darius I (rules 6 years only!, Ezra 6:14,15)
437 BCE 1st of Xerxes who becomes Artaxerxes, co-rule 4 years
434 BCE Darius I dies at Marathon after 6-year rule
424 BCE Xerxes punishes Athenians for murder of Darius I(Salamis)
417 BCE 21st of Xerxes who now claims he is Artaxerxes
403 BCE Beginning of Peloponnesian War, per eclipse of 402BCE
396 BCE Death of Xerxes/Artaxerxes after 41-year rule.
394 BCE 10th of PPW, 30 years after Xerxes' invasion
376 BCE Darius II's rule ends (20 years)
375 BCE Rule of Artaxerxes II (17 years) (375-359)
358 BCE Rule of Artaxerxes III (21 years) (358-338)
337 BCE Arses (2 years)
335 BCE Darius III (3 years)
333 BCE Persian Empire ends...
ANCIENT CHRONOLOGY REALIGNED AS OF 358BCE
Note 82 years of fake Persian history removed.
26 years of removed NB chronology restored
37 BCE Beginning of 37-year rule of Herod the Great
2 BCE Birth of Jesus
1 BC Eclipse event just before death of Herod (not 4BCE!)
1 CE Herod dies, Shebat 2, 1 AD
29 CE Christ baptized, 483 years(69 weeks) after 455BCE
36 CE End of 70 weeks from 455BCE to 36CE
1947 AD 50th jubilee from 455BCE, Jews restored to Israel
1996 AD End of "Covenant Week" beginning 1435 BCE
The above chronology can be confirmed now by astronmical text references as well as archaeological evidence in the context of revised documents from the NB and Persian Periods, including Greek historical influences.
© Charles N. Pope, US Library of Congress. All rights reserved.