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Manasseh and Ephraim
In Response To: Updated Chronology Chart ()

In the new chart (Chart 14b), pharaoh Chephron is associated with Biblical Ephraim, and his successor pharaoh Menkhaure with Biblical Manasseh. The actual archetypes for these names, Ephraim and Manasseh, like so many other Biblical types, derive from pre-dynastic figures. Ephraim is a play on the name Re/Ra, and Manasseh is evidently a play on the name Minh. (The suffix asseh/asah would connote “healer”, an appropriate epithet of Thoth.) These two were the leading “sons” of archetypal Joseph, the god Ptah. Thoth/Minh was more of a political son, however Re was a true son and therefore the more “favored” of the two in the eyes of Ptah. The god Re was designated as the successor of Ptah in kingship, at least in Egypt. The god Thoth had nominal seniority over Ra, but was relegated to the role of high priest and chief minister/steward, again at least in Egypt.

The leading Joseph-figure in the Old Kingdom was Imhotep. However, as high priest of Re, Imhotep also doubled as a type of Thoth (Simeon-figure). In the genealogy of Genesis 10, Imhotep is referred to as Ra-amah, and he is also specifically given two sons, Sheba and Dedan. Sheba, the oldest, would correspond to “Manasseh son of Joseph” whereas Dedan the youngest would correspond to “Ephraim son of Joseph”. In Chart 14b, Dedan is associated with pharaoh Chephron, and Sheba is associated with Chephron’s predecessor pharaoh Djed-ef-re. For that reason, he may be a better choice for the designation of Manasseh during that time period than Menkhaure. Also, Djed-ef-re is clearly a Simeon type (and had a special devotion to the cult of Re) while Menkhaure was in the roles of Benjamin and Issachar (and curtailed the oppressive cult of Re).

“Manasseh” of the Middle Kingdom, pharaoh Amenemhet preceded the Middle Kingdom Ephraim, pharaoh “Senusret”, so that is another factor in favor of Djed-ef-re being the primary Old Kingdom Manasseh (if not the only Thoth/Simeon type of his generation).

Joe “Yuya” Trainer is working on a study of New Kingdom Manasseh, High Priest and Vizier/Steward, Aanen. I don’t want to steal his thunder, so we’ll wait for him to publish his research on that. And I may collaborate with him further on that as well!