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Sumer King-List (SKL) Revisited

There is still no penetrating analysis of the SKL on the web. A few alternative researchers have taken a stab at it, but nothing concerted from Academia.

http://history-world.org/Sumerian%20literary_and_other_historical_so.htm
(Cut and paste this link, it doesn't cooperate otherwise!)

http://history-world.org/sumerian_king_list.htm
http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsMiddEast/MesopotamiaSumer.htm

Apparently there is no concensus by the experts on how to write many of the Sumerian names much less define them. The Akkadian/Semitic names in the list are easier, such as Zukakip ("Scorpion") an obvious correspondence with the early dynastic king Scorpion of Egypt.

The list contains only one female name (Ku-Bau) for certain, but it seems likely that a number of other names also represent queens ruling as kings during this time period. For example, let's look at the first three names in the SKL (after the Flood). The second entry is given (in different versions of the SKL) as either Kullassina-bel or Gulla-Nidaba-annapad. Some have concluded this is a queen, e.g., Laurence Gardiner translating the name as "The Heavenly Queen Nidaba". The Mesapotamian goddess of writing, Nidaba (a.k.a. Nindaba and Tashmetu wife of Nabu), corresponds to the goddess names Sheshat/Sesat and Maat in Egypt. One of the queens of the early dynastic period was variously called Semat and Sheshemetka.

The thrid name in the SKL is Palak-inatim, which looks like the inspiration of the Biblical name Peleg. Peleg was a Patriarch who lived during later time of "division", and was seen as a repetition of the early dynastic figure of Japheth. Peleg was also called Nun/Non. Many names in the SKL from the early dynastic period contain the element Nun and likely should be associated with Japheth or his successors, e.g., Barsalnunna, Enmenunna, Mennumna, Urnungal, En-nun-duranna.

It has already been concluded that the line of Japheth eclipsed that of Ham and Shem very early in the dynastic period, which brings us back to the (damaged) first name in the SKL, Ga..ur (Biblical Gomer). I previously associated the name Gomer (connoting "heat") with Shem. There were good reasons for this, however Gomer may not be the best match with Ga.ur of the SKL. Other versions of the SKL name the first post-Flood king as Jushur, Ngushur or Gurshar. This name appears to then be an early form of Gershom and Joshua (later instances of the "youthful warrior" Ham/Horus the Younger typecasting).

http://www.domainofman.com/forum/index.cgi?read=5515
http://www.domainofman.com/forum/index.cgi?read=13419

Whether Gomer represents Ham or Shem is a bit of a nit. The bigger question involves the location of an entire dynasty, the Egyptian 6th Dynasty. Was it truly a uniuqe dynasty or was it parallel with the Egyptian 11th Dynasty (Sargon's dynasty)? This all hinges on whether the famous reformer king Urukagina belongs at the end of the 1st Dynasty of Lagash or should be placed at the beginning.

Strangely, there is no separate Biblical record of the Egyptian 6th Dynasty and just a trace of the 5th Dynasty (in the obscure mention of Ashur/Sahure in Gen. 10:11). The Bible writes off the rest of this period and introduces a new Adam and Seth (corresponding to Sargon and his dynasty). It could be that the 6th Dynasty was considered such a disgrace that the Biblical author suppressed it. Or it could be that the 6th Dynasty was just an alternate (regional) formulation of the 11th Dynasty. Certainly the later king Apophis not only considered himself a repetition of Pepi but also a new Sargon.

http://www.domainofman.com/book/chap-12.html

The best clue we get from the SKL is that a king name looking suspiciously like Urukagina is found in the dynasty that follows Sargon's, and not before it. The first name of the 2nd Dynasty of Uruk is Urnigin. Uruinimgina is another form of Urukagina, so it is a very good match. The second king of this Uruk/Erech dynasty is called Ur-gigir, which may correspond to Apepi. Recall that Apophis II was called Agog in the Book of Samuel.

http://www.domainofman.com/book/chap-11.html

The SKL also inserts the king name Igigi into the Dynasty of Sargon, which is another apparent reference to Apepi (I or II).

It looks like the 6th Dynasty of Egypt is a gonner as far as being an independent/unique dynasty. However, because it obviously has enormous chronological implications, we should stay open to other explanations.

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