I got an email from Tim just the other day, the same Tim that kicked off the study of Parthia way back in February of 2006:
Tim was intrigued with the more recent confusion between Seqenenre Tao II (a.k.a Djehuty-a’a) and Sekhemre Djehuty.
The Osiriis epithet a’a (“The Great”) was also applied to Djehuty (Abraham), but perhaps only after the brutal execution of his ally Seqenenre (Mamre/Gideon).
Now that we have finished the Persia study, I got to wondering if there is anything that can be used to gain more insight into the period of Abraham and Mamre. In the time of Abraham, it just so happened that the dominant dynasty in Mesopotamia was also Persian, or Kassite to be more precise. Abraham’s father had a Kassite king name, Burnaburiash (shortened to Jo-ash in the book of Judges). The name Terah derives more readily from his Mitanni king name Shattuara.
The Kassite name of Abraham was Kadashman-harbe. This association was not made previously, but I think it now can be, and confidently.
Various reconstructions of the Kassite dynasty place Kadashman-harbe either immediately before or after Kara-indash (Haran brother of Abraham). An Assyrian history claims that the Kassites killed Kara-indash. However, a Kassite history claims that it was Kadashman-harbe who was murdered.
Reconstruction of the Kassite Dynasty:
Kadashman-Harbe as son (successor) of Kara-indash:
Kadashman-Harbe as ruling prior to Kara-indash:
Both accounts can be correct and probably are correct. The Book of Genesis states that Haran died young (suggesting he may have been killed). It can also be deduced that Abraham ultimately suffered the same fate, although out of respect the Bible declines to actually say it.
The Book of Genesis does offer that Abraham sent six of his sons (by Ketura/Kenturah) away from Isaac (Thutmose III) and specifically “to the East”.
This probably reflects the granting of the East to Abraham (late in his life) and to his natural sons. However, after finally succeeding to the Kassite kingdom (or recovering his former inheritance) Abraham may have been brought to a violent rather than peaceful end.
The name/epithet Harbe relates to an earlier “eldest son” and “Reuben” figure, Ur-Bau/Arba (a.k.a. Manishtushu) son of Sargon the Great, who ruled after his younger brother Rimush was assassinated in his palace, and eventually suffered the same fate. (Seqenenre Tao II was placed in a similar "Judah" role as Rimush son of Sargon, and Djehuty regained some status upon his death.)
The equivalent in the later Persian Period was the eldest son of Darius the Great variously known as Artobarzanes, Artabazus and Artabanus. In Greece he was called Pausanius and in Egypt by the name Inarus. He usurped the Persian throne (or was allowed to take it in fulfillment of his typecasting) for a short time before becoming the victim of a coup.
According to H. Saggs (‘Babylonians’, Chapter 7), the Kassite dynasty, despite introducing the horse and chariot, was not known for war, but efficient bureaucracy, construction, and for scribal and literary excellence, particularly “Wisdom Literature”. The Kassite royal culture, like the later Persian rulers, emulated the god Mithra (Thoth/Nabu), but also fully respected native Babylonian religion. G. Leick writes (‘The Babylonians’, p 44), “The Kassite dynasty was the longest lasting in all Babylonian history (c. 1600-1155) and their rule brought five hundred years of stability, prosperity and peace.” While the 500 year duration of Kassite rule is grossly exaggerated, the precedent of Kassite rule was clear.
The intellect and temperament of Abraham was consistent with a Kassite ruler. However, his appointment as Kassite king was put on hold for decades while he patiently endured the persecution of his less tolerant and more militant brothers. And even after gaining the long-lost election, his tenure was brief. The light of his memory has nonetheless shone brightly for centuries and across the globe.
Abraham in India:
Note: Tao II (Mamre) was reckoned as a "fourth son" of Tao I (Terah). Nahor the nominal brother of Abram/Abraham, was also considered a "Judah", but this must have been with regard to some other great king, particularly the "lion king" Arik-den-ili (Biblical Arioch). The next "Judah" of note was Thutmose IV "fourth son" of Amenhotep II (a "Jacob").
© Charles N. Pope, US Library of Congress. All rights reserved.