The origins of Attalus/Attila and Theodosius/Theodore are both mysteries, but let's "shop till we drop" for a good bargain on their true identities.
Diocletian was supposed to have reformed the business of succession within the Roman Empire. Yet, he didn't abandon the traditional typecasting. He designated himself and Galerius as the heirs of Jupiter ("Joseph"). Maximian and Constantius Chlorus were declared heirs to Hercules ("Benjamin son of Judah"). The expected pattern was for the Judah/Benjamin line to play out and for the birthright to pass to Joseph. In other words, Diocletian was structuring the royal family in such a way as to increase the chances of his own natural line to prevail.
Consistent with this, the immediate successors of Diocletian and Galerius (Severan and Maximin Daia) are entirely eclipsed by the successors of Maximian and Constantius Chlorus. The "Joseph princes" were nonetheless carefully established on the periphery of the Roman Empire, as we shall see. Meanwhile the "Benjamin princes" had to duke it out in the heart of the Empire. The eldest son of Constantius Chlorus was the future Constantine, but before he became "the Great" he had to first fight (by the power of the cross!) his co-Emperor Maxentius son of Maximian to the death for control of Rome.
The "Joseph princes", as discerned previously, correspond to Shapur II king of Persia and his brother Hormuz. In Rome they received new identities through adoption by prince Dalmatius third son Constantius Chlorus. As his sons they were called by the names Dalmatius and Hannibalanus. Hannibalanus was the alias of Shapur II and as such he was given Constantina the leading daughter of Constantine the Great in marriage. Constantina was further distinguished upon her marriage by the title of Augusta (Empress). Dalmatius corresponded then to Hormuz. He was younger than his brother and might actually have been a true son of Dalmatius. After the death of Galerius (which occurred only two years after the birth of Shapur II), his wife, also the daughter of Diocletian, evidently became the wife of Dalmatius. Constantine named the younger Dalmatius as his co-Emperor, however Dalmatius was deposed when the sons of Constantine began to come of age.
Note: Emperor Maximian would have earned the name Hannibalianus after subduing North Africa and receiving a Triumph at Carthage. The name Hannibalianus was later passed on to the adopted son of Dalmatius.
The daughter of Galerius was married to Emperor Maxentius. Her name is not known from Roman records, but she was evidently referred to simply as Galla. After the defeat of Maxentius by Constantine the Great, a lady named Galla married Julius Constantius, second son of Constantius Chlorus. She had three children by Julius and/or her former husband. After the death of Constantine the Great, his own second son named Constantius emerged as sole ruler. As he did not have a son of his own, he designated Galla's second son Gallus as co-Emperor and gave him the name/title of Constantius as well. What's more, Constantina was by this time no longer considered the wife of Hannibalianus but became the wife of Gallus.
Gallus had significant successes in the East dealing with the expansion of Shapur II, but this only earned him the jealously of the senior Emperor Constantius. Gallus was deposed at the age of 29 (a number associated with the reign of Osiris). Constantius supposedly rescinded the order for his execution, but it was not believed to have arrived in time to prevent his battering and beheading.
Gallus is strongly reminiscent of the former Emperor Galla who preceded Flavius Vespatian in the 1st Century. The former Galla was also thought to have been violently killed, but we learned that this had not been the case. In fact, his political career did not even end. Likewise, Gallus lived on. In the Roman sphere he was known as Theodosius/Theordore, "gift of God", an epithet of Osiris. In the provinces he was known variously as Kerman-shah in Persia, Grum-bates among the Huns, and Ermaneric (Herman) among the Ostro-Goths. These names would later morph into Harun, Krum, and Kareem. They all derive originally from the name Shem/Garam son of Lamech/Thoth typecasting. (Recall that Shem was himself transformed into an Osiris figure. Note also that Biblical Aaron is of this same basic typecasting).
Gallus Constantius was heir to the line of Julius Constantius, second son of Constantius Chlorus, and therefore heir to a Simeon/Thoth line of descent. The former Emperor Galla was also heir to a Simeon/Thoth line, that of Alexander second son of Herod the Great.
The leading general of Shapur II in the Persian defeat of Rome was Grumbates the Hun. When Shapur II became Emperor of Rome (under the name Valentinian) he acknowledged the support of his leading general Theodosius. Theodosius was later executed by order to Valens, but avenged by Gratian son of Valentinian. Gratian also elevated the son of Theodosius (also called Theodosius) to be his co-Emperor. And upon the death of Gratian, Theodosius became sole Emperor.
Well, the stores are closing up for tonight. Let's try to work it hard again tomorrow!
© Charles N. Pope, US Library of Congress. All rights reserved.