Re: Getting Geb's Goat
In Response To: Getting Geb's Goat ()

Through the comparative method! When we see what ALL cultures say across the board mythicly, and only allow that as evidence we can move beyond the minutia of localization and diffusion , and into the remnant memories of a lost reference and a different sky filled with "gods and wonders".

Lets add a few different quotes on the next figure in this 3 part play.

"From: Kronos Vol. XII No. 1 (Winter 1987) Home | Issue Contents

When Venus Was A Comet
Ev Cochrane and David Talbott
For the past several years, the world had been anxiously awaiting the arrival of history's most famous comet, that named after Edmund Halley. In anticipation of this rare event, a number of books were rushed into print; ocean cruises were organized intent on optimum viewing, while hundreds of "souvenirs" flooded the market. A casual observer of the Halley phenomenon might well wonder why all this fuss over a "celestial snowball".
Aside from the obvious scientific importance of Halley's visit, the fact is that mankind has always been fascinated by the appearance of comets, especially one as reputable as Halley's. The occasion also served as a powerful reminder of the fundamental mystery of the Cosmos about us, and of human nature as well. The reader need hardly be reminded of the bizarre behaviour which has traditionally greeted Halley's appearances in the past, including mass hysteria, murder, and suicide. Neither should the reader forget the equally bizarre and seemingly irrational beliefs surrounding comets in general - their universal association with wars and pestilence, natural disasters, the deaths of kings, and the fall of empires. Indeed, it is as if the appearance of a comet stimulates emotional responses from deep within man's nervous system, much as a cardboard caricature of a hawk suspended overhead arouses instantaneous terror in ducklings.*
[* See L. M. Greenberg & W. B. Sizemore, "Cosmology and Psychology," KRONOS 1:1 (April, 1975), pp. 45 ff. - LMG]
In an attempt to understand the beliefs and legends surrounding these celestial visitors, the present authors began an extensive investigation into the role of comets in ancient tradition. It was discovered that comets played a significant role in ancient mythology and religion, one which would appear to be totally out of proportion with respect to their celestial prominence.(1)
It eventually became apparent that most, if not all, of the strange beliefs associated with comets could be traced to a prototypical body which dominated the skies in the not-so-distant past. Thus the ancient sources unanimously tell of a former age in which the original sun god was enclosed in a gigantic celestial band which bears all the earmarks of having been cometary in nature. According to our hypothesis, it was this celestial scenario which was commemorated by the universal symbol of the enclosed sun, most familiar as the Egyptian Aten (o).
There were, however, more surprises in store. A curious anomaly kept reappearing at each stage of the investigation. This was the intimate association of the planet Venus to symbols traditionally linked with comets -- e.g., the serpent-dragon, hair-star, bearded star, etc. The question arose as to whether this connection between Venus and cometary symbolism was fortuitous, or whether it was possible that the planet Venus once presented a comet-like appearance.
The latter hypothesis was first made famous by Immanuel Velikovsky in Worlds in Collision. Several years of research have convinced the present authors that Velikovsky's theory has much to recommend it. While our first two essays on this subject (see KRONOS X:1 & KRONOS XI:1) examined the evidence for a comet-like Venus in ancient Egypt, the present one will continue the search in Sumerian and Mesoamerican sources .
Sprawling across the modern boundaries of Mexico, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador, the great civilizations of Central America reached heights unparalleled in the rest of the New World. Like their Egyptian counterparts, the Mesoamericans were renowned for their great stone pyramids and religious monuments. Amidst the hieroglyphs and iconography associated with these structures are religious traditions which would appear to be of extreme antiquity.
That many of these religious traditions were astronomically oriented seems to be the consensus among scholars. David Kelley, for example, has observed:
"It has been clear to all serious students of Mesoamerican culture that there was an intimate relationship between astronomical knowledge, the calendar, and religious beliefs and rituals."(2)
Susan Milbrath has recently reiterated this view:
"A number of scholars agree that the fundamental nature of the ancient Mesoamerican pantheon is astronomical."(3)
A prominent characteristic of Mesoamerican astronomy, immediately apparent, was an obsession with the observation and worship of the planet Venus. Thus, at the time of the Spanish conquest, one of the accompanying monks observed that "so accurately did they keep the record or the days when [Venus] appeared and disappeared that they never made a mistake".(4)
Venus symbolism has been found in all forms of inscriptions, including the texts, pottery, and steles. While the intimate association of Venus with the Mayan calendar is well-known, only recently has it become clear just how thoroughly Mayan life was dominated by the appearance and motion of Venus. As Floyd Lounsbury has demonstrated, the Mayans timed their rituals, and even their wars, to significant moments of the Venusian orbit.(5) B. C. Brundage made the following observation:
"The true role of the planet Venus in the development of the Mesoamerican cultures is not understood. It might not be far wrong to look upon the Mesoamerican's great skill in numeration as a child of that planet and to state that their intellectual life pulsed to its periods. Certainly a significant portion of their mythology involved that planet, and their concepts of family legitimacy and challenge were colored by the bonds that united the planet to the sun, the fount of all authority."(6)
Given the Mayan preoccupation with astronomical phenomena, it is understandable that comets would leave their mark on Mayan religion and iconography. That the Mayans were keenly interested in comets is indicated by the frequent cometary representations in surviving manuscripts.(7) At least 750 naked-eye aperiodic comets were recorded as appearing between the Mesoamerican Pre-Classical period and the Conquest. In many instances, these observations are coupled with statements concerning the ominous nature of these visitants, statements which form close and sometimes striking parallels to those from the Old World. The appearance of a comet, for example, is frequently associated with the fall or death of a great ruler (see Figure 1).

An example of cometary interest in the religious sphere can perhaps be seen in the ancient Mayan deity known as God K. Also called the Flare-god, from the strange spiralling coils which emanate from his head, God K was an important figure in the Mayan pantheon, appearing frequently on religious structures and monuments (see Figure 2). Indeed, some temple walls consist of little else than engravings of God K.(8)
The standard opinion of scholars would have these flaring coils represent cigars, or pipes, the smoking of which played a prominent role in Mayan ritual. It is a bit puzzling, however, to find that these pipes sometimes protrude from the middle of the god's forehead!
Lounsbury has suggested that these coils may actually represent a smoking torch, comparing God K with the highland god Toj, whose name means "torch", a deity celebrated for his role as firebringer.(9)
The similarity of these smoking coils to the exaltations of a comet is worthy of note; and it is not without interest that the Mesoamericans actually described comets as celestial cigars.(10) Moreover, Kelley has found the same spiralling design combined with an astronomical glyph:
"As a separate glyph, the tubular pipe occurs only once, prefixed to a 'star' glyph (Tikal St.5, B10) . . . I have suggested that the combination is to be read budz ek, 'smoking star,' a known Yucatec term for comets. The inscription suggests that the pipe has become infixed into the head of God K, though the infix has been so conventionalized in the codices that it is no longer recognizable as a separate element."(11) (See Figure 3.)
While we agree with Kelley's analysis of this glyph, we also wonder how many other cometary signs have become "so conventionalized in the codices" that their original meaning has been lost or forgotten
As we have already seen,(12) one of the most common cometary symbols in the Old World was that of the serpent-dragon. If the Mayans were as interested in comets as the above evidence suggests, we should expect to find further cometary evidence in their art, where the serpent-dragon is the single most dominant iconographical motif.
Represented at every Mayan site of any importance, the dragon can be traced to the earliest stages of the Olmec Period (2000-1500 B.C.). Peter Joralemon, who has investigated the origins of Mayan dragon iconography, with special emphasis on its Olmec precedents, has concluded that:
"The iconographic ancestry of God I -- the Olmec Dragon -- can be traced back to the beginnings of Olmec civilization. Images of the deity have been discovered in early deposits at San Lorenzo in the Olmec Heartland and at Las Bocas and Tlapacoya in central Mexico. He is portrayed on objects ranging in size from large stone monuments to small ceramic vessels. His image is rendered in all the major media known to have been used by Olmec artists . . . The large number of extant representations of God I indicates that the Dragon was the most important member of the Olmec pantheon."(13)
Of the many intriguing examples of the dragon in Mesoamerican art, the most important for our purpose are those which represent this fabulous beast as an enclosure. As we demonstrated in our first article on the subject, this is a widespread Old World motif. There we stated:
"The point we wish to stress here is that all of the serpent dragons cited as cometary phenomena by Velikovsky (Babylonian Tiamat, Egyptian Set, Norse Midgard, etc.) act in precisely the same manner: Their body comes to form the great god's celestial dwelling. And, as we have seen, it was precisely this celestial dwelling which was commemorated by the Aten sign; thus it is significant to find that Egyptian hieroglyphs frequently depict the band of the Aten as formed by the body of a serpent. Moreover, while Ra was addressed as ami-khet-f, 'dweller in his fiery circle', he was also known as ami-hem-f, 'dweller in his fiery serpent'."(14)
Ancient Aztec tradition has preserved a striking parallel to Ra's fiery enclosure. Xiuhcoatl, whose name means "turquoise serpent", was represented as a fiery dragon enclosing the Aztec sun god. Significantly, Xiuhcoatl was described as a "heavenly torch" and reputed to spew forth comets.(15)
Besides appearing as a house or dwelling of the sun god, the Egyptian dragon was also represented as a throne upon which the god is seated. As bizarre as these motifs appear to the modern mind, they were also favorites of Mesoamerican artists. Thus, in Central America, the dragon frequently appears as a circular dwelling or protective wall enclosing the god (see Figure 4). As D. Taylor, who has traced the prevalence of this Mayan motif, concludes: "It is common to find the Cauac monster [i.e., the dragon] as an enclosure."(16)

A variation of this motif features the god enclosed within the monster's gaping jaws.(17) Mesoamerican art also produces numerous examples in which the dragon serves as a throne to the god or ruler. Figure 5 forms a particularly interesting example. We draw the reader's attention to the glyphs decorating the border of the throne formed by the dragon's body. Could it be that this spiralling sign - - known as the Caban curl, actually depicts a cometary body?
A distinguishing feature of Mesoamerican dragons is that many of them are equipped with feathers (see Figure 6). This association of serpents and feathers is, of course, grossly unnatural; and scholars have been hard pressed to find a satisfactory explanation for this assimilation of features. It is worthy of note, however, that comets were compared to celestial feathers by the American Indians as well as by peoples of the Old World.(18)

Perhaps the most unusual attribute of Mesoamerican dragons is their long flowing beards. The beard is especially prominent in representations of the Plumed Serpent, Cauac Dragon, and the supreme deity of post classical Yucatan, Itzam Na (see Figure 7).(19) The dragon's bizarre conglomeration of features -- serpentine body, feathers, beard, together with the fiery scrolls and spirals which frequently adorn his body -- prompted Joralemon to remark that:

"The primary concern of Olmec art is the representation of creatures that are biologically impossible. Such mythological beings exist in the mind of man, not in the world of nature."(20)
Is it not possible that, rather than trying to dream up the "biologically impossible", Mesoamerican artists were perhaps striving to commemorate a most unusual and terrifying spectacle associated with a great comet? If this were actually the case, the dragon's spiralling curls, plumes, beard, and flames would, after all, be grounded in the natural world.
One final characteristic of Mesoamerican dragons is significant and warrants attention. This concerns their intimate association with the planet Venus. As Brundage has noted:
"In Teotihuacan the dragon is plainly portrayed as an overarching sky motif, a path for stellar objects. He is a plumed rattlesnake, and he is often paired or twinned. He can be identified, from the quincunx (the five points that together form the emblem of the morning star) that adorns him, as the planet Venus."(21) (See Figure 8.)
The dragon's identification as the planet Venus forms yet another example of a persistent tradition which has no apparent basis in reality. For under what circumstances does the planet Venus present the appearance of a celestial dragon?
The standard opinion among Mesoamerican scholars would appear to agree with Brundage who sees the serpent-dragon originating as a symbol of the overarching sky, with the Venus glyphs presumably serving a decorative function. Accordingly, Thompson writes:
"Celestial dragons frequently have Venus glyphs on their heads, but as they form the canopy of heaven, it is not unnatural that their function should be emphasized by setting on their bodies the star of dawn and dusk."(22)
While it is difficult to argue with a scholar of Thompson's stature, the fact of the matter is that the "canopy of heaven" does not in the least resemble a circular serpent, much less a fire-breathing dragon. Nor does there appear to be any apparent reason why the celestial canopy should be so meticulously equipped with feathers, beard, and igneous designs. Here, also, ad hoc explanations will be required. Yet, if the celestial dragon was originally a writhing comet, one associated in some way with the planet Venus, each of these associations would make perfect sense.
Indeed, the traditions concerning the Venusian dragons appear too specific to be explained in Thompson's manner. The Aztec fire-dragon, Xiuhcoatl, for example, is represented as carrying the Sun upon its back.(23) By what stretch of the imagination does the present Sun appear to ride upon a dragon? And yet, the Mesoamericans ascribed the same role to the planet Venus. Thus a Mayan name of Venus, Icoquih, translates as "she who carries the sun on her back".(24)
A clear test as to whether the Mesoamerican dragons symbolize the sky in general ( la Brundage and Thompson), or a comet-like Venus in particular, can be made by comparing the Mayan traditions with those from the Old World. Such a comparison reveals that the planet Venus was also described there as a celestial dragon.
One of the world's oldest religious texts, The Exaltation of Inanna,* describes the planet Venus in the following manner: "In the form of the great Serpent you have deposited poison across the land."(25)
[*See B. Newgrosh, "The Case for Catastrophe in Historical Times," KRONOS XI:1 (Fall 1985), pp. 3-20. - LMG]
Sumerian scholars have quite naturally been puzzled by the comparison of Inanna-Venus to a celestial dragon. Unaware that Venus was similarly represented in Mesoamerica, Sumerian scholars and other commentators fail to seek a relationship between Inanna's serpentine characteristics and her identification with the planet Venus. In fact, only rarely has the attempt been made to understand the goddess, or her mythological traits, from an astronomical standpoint.(26) This is somewhat odd because the identification of Inanna with the planet Venus is well-known, having been attested to as early as the third millennium B.C.
It is, nevertheless, clear that many of the traditions surrounding Inanna can only be understood from an astronomical perspective. An ancient text, for example, celebrates Inanna as follows: "The pure torch that flares in the sky, the heavenly light, shining bright like the day, the queen of heaven."(27)
As the queen of heaven, there can be little doubt as to Inanna's celestial character. The majority of Sumerian scholars accept this, even if they seek to explain the passage in question on the basis of the present appearance of Venus. But as the passage invoking the dragon-like Inanna demonstrates, other passages are not so easily explained.
Elsewhere in the Exaltation, for example, Inanna appears as "the blazing fire which rained down upon Sumer".(28) This recalls another hymn in which Inanna is made to exclaim:
"I was the blazing, the brilliant fire, I was the blazing fire which becomes alight in the mountain-land. I was the fire whose flame and sparks rained down upon the Rebel-land."(29)
Such imagery would naturally call to mind a comet were it not Inanna-Venus being so described.
The Exaltation is one of the earliest and most popular texts composed in honor of Inanna, and as such we consider it to be a veritable Rosetta Stone concerning the origins of Inanna's cult. It is therefore particularly significant to find Inanna described as dragon like and as raining fire from heaven.
It is also intriguing that cataclysmic imagery pervades the hymn:
"Devastatrix of the lands, you are lent wings by the storm . . . you fly about the nation-(lines 17 & 18). At the sound of you the lands bow down-(line 20). Propelled on your own wings you peck away at the land-(line 27). With a roaring storm you roar; with Thunder you continually thunder- (lines 29 & 30)."
It is difficult to reconcile such statements with the current peaceful movements of the planet Venus, and yet it must be said that such imagery is hardly peculiar to the Exaltation. Consider the following passage from a hymn cited by Jacobsen:
"She was making heaven tremble, the earth shake, Inanna was destroying the cowpens, burning the sheepfolds, crying 'Let us berate An, the king of the gods'."(30)
In yet another hymn, Inanna announces:
"I was the conflagration which shone forth in the heavens, when the heavens shook back and forth and the earth trembled and quaked "(31)
And again, the goddess is invoked with the words:
"Loud Thundering Storm [Inanna] . . . You make the heavens tremble and the earth quake. Great Priestess, who can soothe your troubled heart? You flash like lightning over the highlands; you throw your firebrands across the earth. Your deafening command . . . splits apart great mountains."(32)
While reading these lines we are continually reminded of the language of the great Greek tragedians. Throughout these hymns, there is the haunting suspicion that some spectacular cataclysm is being described, even perhaps by an eyewitness. It is as if the goddess Inanna had suddenly run amok.
That Sumerian scholars have been thoroughly puzzled by such language is evidenced by the wide-ranging explanations that have been offered to account for Inanna's destructive qualities. Jacobsen, for example, compares the meteorological phenomena in the previous passages with those of a thunderstorm, concluding that Inanna was the "power in the rain clouds".(33)
J. Wilson, reviewing many of the same passages, understands Inanna as the personification of a runaway oil-geyser. The cataclysmic imagery of the Exaltation is thus understood by Wilson as having reference to a great natural disaster spanning ancient Mesopotamia in which massive earthquakes caused the eruption of natural gas and oil deposits, with attendant fires and explosions.(34)
J. Roberts, meanwhile, interprets Inanna's destructive characteristics as a leftover from Sumer's nomadic past. Roberts concludes:
"Since in early nomadic society the young women egged on the young warriors in battle with praise and taunts, [Inanna] could also be seen as the personification of the rage of battle."(35)
Besides being largely contrived and mutually exclusive, each of these explanations fails to take into consideration Inanna's identification as the planet Venus, the one positive fact we have concerning Inanna's cult. Yet, once the possibility that Inanna-Venus was once comet like in appearance is considered, the imagery contained in the Exaltation appears perfectly appropriate. A "dragon raining fire", or a "torch-like goddess throwing off sparks and firebrands", is exactly the type of language a pre-astronomical culture would be likely to employ in describing a comet.
Consider again verse 17, in which Inanna is described as equipped with wings. As commentators have pointed out, the winged Inanna is a common image, found already on seals of the Early Dynastic period (third millennium B.C.).(36) The question that faces us is: What might the Sumerians have meant by the term "winged Inanna"? While several explanations come to mind,(36a) the most relevant, in our opinion, is that given in the Babylonian astronomical texts. There the Babylonian skywatchers employ the term "winged-star" as a name for comets.(37)
If Inanna was, in fact, comet-like in appearance -- and given the ominous portents associated with comets throughout the ancient world -- the sense of dread which surrounds the Exaltation's account of Inanna "flying about the skies" would be readily understandable.
According to the testimony of the Exaltation, such a sense of dread and helplessness characterized the Sumerian's relationship to Inanna. Thus, the poet makes reference to those "who dare not walk in [Inanna's] terrible glance, who dare not proceed before [Inanna's] terrible countenance".(38) Another passage tells of the "fear and trembling at [Inanna's] tempestuous radiance".(39) In these passages, the others, Inanna appears as a celestial sword of Damocles suspended over Sumer, ready to swoop down and bring death and destruction at any moment.
In this context, it is quite possible that the Sumerian word for "radiance" - "melammu"-might provide a clue to the nature of this dread associated with Inanna. It is known, from the Babylonian astronomical texts, that the planet Venus was especially feared when most bright (as at the time of heliacal rising) or when wearing a halo.(40) Exactly what the halo of Venus might refer to is unclear, but on at least one occasion Inanna's radiance and halo appear in parallel lines:
"Her radiant light, being that of the pure Urash, and her halo-light, she gave as light for him in the shikaft of the mountain-land."(41)
That the "tempestuous radiance" of Inanna did not simply refer to the typical appearance of Venus seems clear. Thus another passage states: "Inanna . . . roared bull-like across Sumer for him, her radiant light, being that of the pure Urash."(42)
According to The Assyrian Dictionary, the general sense of the word "melammu" is a "supernatural radiance or splendor", inherent especially in things divine or powerful.(43) This is the meaning contained in a phrase at the very outset of the Exaltation: "Righteous woman clothed in radiance --- [melammu] ,"(44)
According to Jacobsen, another meaning of "melammu" is "nimbus".(45) It is thus probable that Inanna's radiance and halo were related, if they were not one and the same thing. Most important, however, is the meaning "melammu" had to the scribes of the earliest astronomical texts. There "sallammu", a synonym of "melammu", appears as a term for "comet".(46)
The awe-inspiring melammu radiance of Inanna would appear to justify a reassessment of the astronomical reality that lies behind the "beard" of Ishtar-Venus frequently mentioned in the Babylonian astronomical records.(47)
In light of the possibility that Inanna-Venus may have once presented a comet-like form, her earliest symbols should be reinvestigated.
Take, for example, the most common sign of the goddess usually interpreted as a reed bundle with streamers.(48) Found on the earliest known cuneiform tablets (Uruk level IIIb), this sign has no obvious significance with regard to Inanna, even though attempts have been made to pass it off as a symbol of fertility. This has come about because the symbol frequently appears as a decoration of the sacred sheepfold.
From our perspective, the resemblance of this sign to a stylized comet can hardly go unnoticed. Lynn E. Rose made the same observation a decade ago. Of the twelve principal variants of this symbol as found in Falkenstein's Archaische Texte aus Uruk, Rose commented that "every one of them looks like a comet".(49)
Even Peter Huber, author of a recent book on the Babylonian Venus tablets, admitted that, in the Uruk texts, "the Inanna symbol sometimes looks like a comet".(50)

An entirely different symbol of Inanna, almost as old and just as common, is the rosette, the astronomical origin of which is undisputed. Yet, another astral symbol linked to the goddess, one with clearcut cometary associations, is the hair-star (see Figure 9). Although the religious significance of the hair-star is much debated, several archaeologists have expressed the opinion that "the motive was a token of possession marking . . . animals [with it] as the property of Ishtar".(51)
The Eye is another symbol that warrants mention. In 1937, Mallowan excavated what has become known as the Eye Temple, an edifice dedicated to the worship of Inanna. "The name of the temple comes from the hundreds of figurines found there whose chief feature is the eyes."(52) The celestial nature of the Eye-symbolism is indicated by the fact that "rosettes are sometimes placed in the same 'eyelash' setting as the eyes".(53)
The Eye-Temple at Brak is evidence that the association of Inanna and the Eye is both ancient and intimate. Yet, in Sumer itself, little evidence has been preserved that would allow us to understand the precise celestial reference to the Eye. We can, however, partially fill this gap in the archaeological record by considering the cult of the Egyptian warrior-goddess Hathor in which the Eye is a dominant motif.
One of the most unusual images in all of ancient religion is the warring eye of Ra, represented as raining down fire and destruction upon the enemies of the Egyptian sun god. While references to the Eye as warrior are plentiful throughout the Pyramid and Coffin Texts, it is in the early tract entitled "Destruction of Mankind" that the Eye's warring aspect becomes most prominent. There the Eye appears as a special emissary, or weapon, sent by Ra to punish mankind for blasphemy:
"Let go forth thine Eye, let it destroy for thee those who blaspheme with wickedness, not an eye can precede it in resistance . . . when it goeth down in the form of Hathor. Went forth then this goddess, she slew mankind on the mountain."(54)
In this passage, the Eye is identified with Hathor, the pre-eminent Mother Goddess of ancient Egypt, an identification that persists throughout the Pyramid Texts. Each also shares an explicit association with the Uraeus, an early Egyptian form of the serpent-dragon: "The Eye is identified in the Pyramid Texts with the Uraeus viper which spat venom and fire against its enemies and was fastened at the forehead of the king as the sign of kingship in both heaven and earth. " (55)
As the warring Eye in the form of a venom-spewing dragon, Hathor forms a striking parallel to the serpentine Inanna raining down fire and venom upon the inhabitants of Sumer. And as Inanna was identified with the planet Venus, so also, apparently, was the eye of Ra. Thus R. Anthes draws the following conclusion with respect to early references to the Eye:
"We used to understand [such references] as though the Eye of Ra was identified as the Sun, but a careful interpretation of them has unmistakably shown that the Eye of Ra was the Morning Star."(56)
Once again we are met with the difficulty of explaining how the planet Venus could possibly have evoked the image of an Eye/Dragon spewing forth fire and venom. Throughout this series of essays, our contention has been that Venus could only have presented such an appearance if it had once assumed a comet-like form. Is there any evidence, then, that the Eye may once have been a comet?
The fact is that much of the otherwise obscure mythology of the Eye can only be understood on the basis of its having had a cometary form. How else but through a cometary interpretation can one understand the following passage from the Coffin Texts: "I raised up the hair from the Sacred Eye at the time of its wrath."(57)
The time of the Eye's wrath refers to the time when, as Hathor, the Eye burned across the heavens above Egypt intent on destroying mankind. Thus, another passage from the same text reads: "I am the fiery Eye of Horus, who went forth terrible, Lady of slaughter . . . I am indeed she who shoots."(58)
The terrifying nature of this celestial occurrence is duly commemorated in the following passage:
"Hearts were pervaded with fear, hearts were pervaded with terror when I was born in the Abyss before the sky existed . . . before the fear which arose on account of the Eye of Horus existed."(59)
Another passage attests to the extent of the Eye's destruction: "Its flame is to the sky."(60)

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Re: Getting Geb's Goat